Glossary of Acoustics Chapter 1
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- a disturbance traveling in an elastic medium
- Types of waves:
- Transverse, longitudinal, sinusoidal, and impulsive
- Transverse wave
- waves in which the particles in the medium move perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. Ex. water waves & the "wave" @ football games
- Longitudinal wave
- waves in which the particles in the medium move parallel to the direction in which the wave itself travels. Ex.
sound waves & slinky
- Sinusoidal wave
- are oscillatory wave shapes that have a special simple shape like a mathematical sine or cosine curve. smooth undulating shape
- Impulsive wave
- made up of a single burst of one or several pulses. Ex.
a bang noise, like clapping your hands.
- Oscillatory waves
- wave shapes that always have a repeating pattern
- Propagation velocity (or wave velocity)
- the speed at which something moves along a wave
- distance divided by time
- Medium velocity
- the speed with which a point of the medium moves as the wave passes that point
- Five properties of waves:
- wavelength, cycle, period, amplitude, and frequency
- the distance from one peak of the wave to the next adjacent peak. The distance a wave moves in one period.
- a complete round trip of point B from its original position, up, down all the way to its lowest position, and back to its original
- period (T)
- the time required to complete one cycle (time per cycle)
- amplitude (A)
- the maximum distance that point B is displaced from its normal nonvibrating position. amplitude is the maximum value of the displacement.
- frequency (f)
- the number of cycles per second of time. Usually referred to in Hertz (Hz). Ex. 2 cycles per second =
- the distance that point B (or other point) is moved from its normal nonvibrating position. (the position when there is no wave)
- Wave (or propagation) velocity
- the speed with which a crest or any other part of the wave moves in the direction of the wave
- sensation of different sounding frequencies. The greater the frequency, the higher the pitch.
- Pure tone
- vibrations that occur at the same frequency
- a measure of the amount of material in a body
- the tendency of a body to remain in its present state of motion. if at rest, a body will stay at rest unless there is a force to get it moving. if it is in motion, a force is required to make it move faster/slower
- a force caused by the surface roughness of two objects in contact when one object moves relative to the other.
- force per unit area.
pounds per square inch or
Newtons per square meter
- Newtons per square meter
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