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Glossary of Abraham Maslow Ch 15

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Transpersonal psychology
aka
fourth-force psychology

Psychology that examines the human relationship to the cosmos or to something "bigger than we are" and the mystical, spiritual or peak experiences that the realization of such a relationship produces.
Third-Force Psychology
Humanistic psychology which was viewedby Maslow and others as an alternative to psychoanalysis and behaviorism.
Synergy
Working together. Individuals in a community characterized by synergy work in harmony and are not in conflict with their society.
Strong ethical sense
Characterizes the self-actualizing person.
Characteristics of the Self-actualizing person
Spontaneity, Simplicity and Naturalness
Acceptance of democratic values
characteristic of the self-actualizing person,
Acceptance of self, others and nature
characteristic of the self-actualizing person,
Accurate and full perception of reality
characteristic of the self-actualizing person.
Continued freshness of appreciation
characteristic of the self-actualizing person.
Creativity
characteristic of the self-actualizing person.
Nonconformity
characteristic of the self-actualizing person.
Independence from the environment and culture
characteristic of the self-actualizing person.
Identification with all of humanity
characteristic of the self-actualizing person.
Sense of humor that is unhostile
characteristic of the self-actualizing person.
Aesthetic Needs
Innate need for such qualities as symmetry, closure, and order, observed most clearly in children and in self-actualizing adults.
Deep Friendships with only a few people
characteristic of the self-actualizing person.
Self-Actualization
Highest level in the hierarchy of needs, which can be reached only if the preceding need levels have been adequately satisfied. The self-actualizing individual operates at full capacity and B-motivated rather than D-motivated.
Instinctoid
Term Maslow used to describe the nature of the human needs. An instinctoid need is innate but weak and is easily modified by the environment.
Safety Needs
Second cluster of needs in the hierarchy of needs, included is the need for order, security, and predictability.
Reductive-analytic Approach to Science
Strategy of reducing an object of interest to its component parts in order to study and understand it.
Problem-oriented rather than self-oriented
Characterizes the self-actualizing person.
Positive Psychology
Field in contemporary psychology that explores the higher aspects of humans but does so in a way that is more scientifically rigorous and less self-centered than was humanistic psychology.
Physiological Needs
Most basic cluster of needs in the hierarchy of needs. Included are the needs for water, food, oxygen, sleep, elimination and sex.
Ashrams
Retreats in India where ordinary citizens can go for various periods of time to escape everyday anxieties and reflect on the meaning of their lives.
Being Cognition
aka
B-Cognition

Thinking or perceiving that is governed by B-values rather than by D-Motives. Such cognition is richer and fuller than D-cognition.
Being Motivation
aka
Growth Motivation

Motivation governed by the pursuit of B-values instead of by the satisfaction of basic deficiencies.
Being Values (B-Values)
aka
Metamotives

Those higher aspects of life pursued by self-actualizing individuals. Included are such values as truth, goodness, beauty, justice and perfection.
Belongingness and love needs
Third cluster of needs in the hierarchy of needs. Included are the needs for affiliation with others and for the feeling of being loved.
B-Love
Deep, nonpossessive, insatiable emotional relationship that is not aimed at satisfying any particular need. Such love contrasts with D-love.
Deficiency Motivation
aka
D-Motivation

Motivation governed by the basic needs. Characterizes the lives of individuals who are not self-actualizing.
Deficiency Motive
aka
D-Motive

Needs or deficiencies that exist in the hierarchy of needs prior to the level of self-actualization.
Desacralization
Any process that distorts human nature and depicts it as less marvelous and dignified than it is.
Desire to Know and Understand
Innate curiosity that Maslow believed was functionally related to the ability to satisfy all human needs.
Detachment and a need for privacy
characterizes the self-actualizing person.
Esalen Institute
Institute in California modeled after the Indian ashram where non-neurotic, healthy people can further develop their inner resources.
Esteem needs
Fourth cluster of needs in the hierarchy of needs. Included are the needs for status, prestige, competence and confidence.
Eupsychian Management
Industrial or societal management that attempts to consider the basic human needs as Maslow viewed them.
Metapathology
Psychological disorder that results when a being motive is not allowed proper expression.
Humanistic Psychology
aka
Third Force Psychology

Approach to psychology that emphasizes the experiencing person, creativity, the study of socially and personally significant problems, and the dignity and enhancement of people.
Guru
Spiritual leader of an Ashram.
Holistic-analytic Approach to Science
Strategy of studying an object of interest as a totality rather than attempting to reduce it to its component parts.
Why Self-Actualization is NOT Universal
1. Weakest of the needs and easily impeded.
2. People fear the ind of knowledge about themselves that self-actualization requires.
3. Cultural environments can stifle.
4. Childhood influences can impede.


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