Glossary of Abnormal Psychology Midterm
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- characteristics that define abnormal behavior
- statistical infrequency
violation of norms
disability or behavioral dysfunction
- different psychological paradigms
- biological paradigm
(medical model/disease model)
- the idea that mental disorders are caused by aberrant biological processes. discusses the idea of behavior genetics, often a factor in a diathesis. can use the family method, twin method, adoptees method, linkage analysis to study genetic frequencies of abnormalities.
- biological approaches to treatment
- mostly medication
uses the idea of reductionism (the idea that what is studied can be reduced to most basic elements/constituents, i.e. psychopathology will be nothing more than biology).
- psychoanalytic paradigm
- the thought that psychopathology results from unconscious conflicts in the individual. uses freudian ideas of ego, id, superego. the importance of the unconscious in creating conflict. neurotic anxiety: the repurcussions of fixation in one stage of development. defense mechanisms, repression, projection, denial, displacement, reaction formation, regression, rationalization, sublimation (not totally impt. to know).
- psychoanalytic therapy
- techniques to lift repression: free association, dream analysis, transference. allow patient to release repressed anxiety/anger that is causing conflicts.
- humanistic/existential paradigm
- insight-focused, based on the assumption that disordered behavior results from a lack of inight. client-centered, self-actualization. one must think for themselves and reflect on their behavior. therapy uses empathy.
- humanistic therapy
- empathy and emphasis on personal growth. work to help patients confront their anxieties, use "I" language. use of metaphor, empty chair, nonverbal cues.
- learning paradigm
- views abnormal behavior as learned--like other behaviors. introspection important. like behavior--we have been conditioned to behave one way. operant conditioning. modeling.
- learning/behavioral therapy
- behavior modification and re-conditioning, counterconditioning and exposure/ systematic desensitization. also aversive conditioning and operant conditioning (time-out).
- cognitive paradigm
- focus on how people structure their experiences, how they make sense of them, and how they relate thri curretn experiences to past one that have been stored in memory. idea that info fits into a schema.
- cognitive behavior therapy
- cognitive restructuring to change patterns of thought. change irrational beliefs to rational-emotive behavior.
- beck's cognitive therapy
- developed therapy for depression based on the idea that depressed mood is caused by distortions in the way people perceive life experiences. goal is to provide patients with experiences that will alter negative schema.
- diathesis-stress model: an integrative paradigm
- links biological, psychological, and environmental factors. not limited to one school of thought. if one shares risk factors in these different aspects, it increases the risk for developing a disorder. stress factor meant to account for how risks can develop into a disorder. idea that both stress and diathesis important for developing a disorder
- define sexual dysfunction
- the range of sexual problems that are usually considered to represent inhibitions in the normal sexual response cycle
- four phases of human sexual response cycle
- hypoactive sexual disorder
- deficient or absent sexual fantasies and urges
- sexual aversion disorder
- more extreme form of hypoactive sex disorder. avoids all genital contact with another.
- female sexual arousal disorder
- persistent inability to attain or maintain sexual excitement; marked distress or interpresonal problems
- male sexual arousal disorder
- persistent inability to attain/maintain an erection, distress/interpersonal problems
- female orgasmic disorder
- absence of orgasm after a period of normal sexual excitement/distress.
- male orgasmic disorder and premature ejaculation
- rare; delay/absence of orgasm. persistent ejaculation after minimal stimulation and before man wishes it. distress/interpersonal problems.
- a sexual pain disorder. recurrent genital pain associated with intercourse. not caused medically.
- involuntary spasms of the outer third of the vagina to a degree that sex is impossible.
- masters and johnson two-tiered model of sexual dysfunction
- fear of performance (overly concerned about performance during sex) and spectator role (observer rather than participant). believes this factors cause dysfunctions.
believe in historical causes (religion, trauma, inadequate counseling, alcohol, biology, etc.)
- some therapies for sexual dysfunction
- anxiety reduction
procedures to change attitudes and thoughts
skills and communication training
- what is the DSM?
- the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, a complete listing of all the criteria for a psychological abnormality
- axis I
- all diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation.
disorders diagnosed in infancy, childhood, (learning disorders, motor skills disorder, pervasive dev't disorders, ADD, feeding/infancy disorders, tic disorders)
delirium, dementia, amnestic, cognitive disorders
substance-related (alcohol, caffeine, sedative)
mood disorders (depressive, bipolar)
anxiety disorders (panic, phobia, OCD)
impulse control disorders
- axis II
- personality disorders and mental retardation
(paranoid pd, schizo pd, antisocial, borderlind, narcissistic, etc)
- axis III
- general medical conditions
- axis IV
- psychosocial and environmental problems
- axis V
- current level of functioning
- the extent to which a classification system, or a test or measurement of any kind, produces the same scientific observation each time it is applied
- interrater reliability
- how much 2 judges agree about an event
- evaluating the extent to which accurate statement and predctiosn can be made about a category once it has been formed. to what extent does the construct enter into a network of lawful relationships?
- right to treatment
- the only justification for civil commitment is treatment. nondangerous mental patients cannot be confined against their will.
- right to refuse treatment
- has the right to refuse treatment, but opinion of health professionals must take precedence over the right to refuse treatment when patients are a danger to themselves or others.
- advanced directive
- a sort of "living will" to specify how one wants to be treated should they be admitted to a mental facility
- sadness, feelings of worthlessness, withdrawal from others, loss of sleep, apetite, sexual desire, interest and pleasure in usual activities
- unfounded elation and energy, hyperactivity, talkativeness, impulsiveness.
- major depressive disorder
- at least two weeks of depressed mood/loss of interest and pleasure. plus some other symptoms: sleep distrubance, loss of energy, etc.
- bipolar I disorder
- episodes of mixed mania and depression
- a change in mood less extreme than full-blown mania, lasting shorter time (4 days)
- cyclothymic disorder
- freequent periods of depressed mood and hypomania. can be mixed with, or seperated by, normal mood lasting as long as two months.
- dysthymic disorder
- chronic low depression
- beck's theory of depression
- individuals feel as they do because their thinking is biased toward negative interpretations. patient develops a negative schema (tendency to see the world negatively). negative views of self, world, and future.
- principle cognitive biases of depression (beck's theory)
- arbitrary inference
magnification and minimization
- helplessness/hopelessness theory
- helplessness--individual's passivity and inability to act controls life.
attribution-the explanation a person has for his behavior
hopelessness--an expectation that desireable outcomes will not occur or that undesirable ones will occur and person has no ability to change sit. low self-esteem, inference that life will have negative consequences
- interpersonal theory of depression
- behavior of depressed people elicits negative reactions, rejection, gratifying their own self-thinking. constant seeking of reasssurance onerous to others which increases depressed mood.
- biological theories of mood disorders and treatments
- genetics count. and tricyclics/ssri/mao-inhibitors work.
- psychodynamic therapy for depression
- acheive insight into repressed conflict and ameliorate it
- cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression
- alter maladaptive/negative thought patterns
- electroconvulsive therapy used to help severe depression or mania
- therapy for depressed children/adolescents
- broad spectrum including family and school environments. CBT effective.
- women vs. men re: suicide
- men 4-5 times more likely than women to kill themselves
3 times as many women attempt than men
- suicide risks
- being female
psychiatrists, physicians, lawyers, psychologists, police, musician, dentist
living in hungary
- durkheim's sociological theory
3 types of suicide
- egotistic suicide--few ties to family, community
altruistic--response to societal demands (protest)
anomic suicide--change in person's relation to society
- shneidman's approach to suicide
- there are ten commonalities of suicide.
purpose is to seek a solution
goal is cessation of consciousness
cognitive state is ambivalence
- six categories of anxiety disorders
acute stress disorder
- excessive, unreasonalbe, persistent fear triggered by objects or situations
exposure to trigger leads to intense anxiety
person recognizes fear is unrealistic
object/situation avoided with anxiety
- social phobia
- persistent, irrational fear linked to the presence of other people. higher suicide rates.
- panic disorder
- recurrent, unexpected panic attacks
at least one month of concern regarding the occurrence of further attacks
depersonalization, derealization, terror, impending doom involved with panic attacks.
- fear of public places
really, a fear of having a panic attack in a public place
- generalized anxiety disorder
- excessive anxiety and worry
worry difficult to control
three of more of following: restlessness, easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance
persistent anxiety about minor items
- obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
- obsessions, recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or urges that cuase anxiety
compulsions--repetitive behaviors and mental acts that the person performs to relieve distress
- post-traumatic stress disorder
- exposure to a traumatic event causing extreme fear
event is reexperienced
person avoids stimuli associated with event and has a numbing of responsiveness
hyperarousal symptoms such as exaggerated startle response
duration of symptoms over a month
the high end of adverse reactions to stress. can develop after/out of acute stress disorder
- acute stress disorder
- less than one month of symptoms similar to PTSD.
- multicultural counseling competencies
- 1. openness toward other cultural views of the world
2. knowledge of specific culture
3. competent in involving other support people
4. modify interventions
5. develop a tolerance for ambiguity/divergent views of right/wrong
- multicultural couseling competencies and standards
(sue, arredondo, mcdavis)
- beliefs and attitudes
- feeling good handbook 10 questions
- how long have i been feeling this way?
am i doing something constructive about it or just brooding?
are my thoughts and feelings realistic?
will it be helpful/hurtful if i express my feelings?
am i making myself unhappy about a situation that's beyond my control?
am i avoiding a problem and denying i'm really upset?
are my expectations for the world realistic?
am i feeling hopeless?
am i experiencing a loss of self-esteem?
- problems with the DSM
- validity and reliability
diagnosis based on symptoms, not causal factors
mental health stuck with "etiology unknown"
doesn't account for cultural variation
categorical rather than dimensional
- critiques of MC competencies
- undue emphasis on external factors over internal processes of mental illness
assumes race/ethnicity/culture more impt. than other individual factors
emphasizes differences rather than similarities
- black racial identity development
- pre-encounter (black inferior)
immersion/emersion (idealize black, denigrate white)
integration (positive aspects of both)
- white racial identity
- contact (no racial identity)
- multicultural assessment procedure (MAP)
- identify cultural data
interpret cultural data
incorporate cultural data
arrive at sound assessment decision
- intake interview information (first session)
- presenting problem
family psychiatric history
- risk factors for depression
- family members depressed
stressful/traumatic life event
lack of social support
chronic medical illness/pain
- diet helpers w/ depression
omega-3 fatty acids
- gender identity disorder
- feeling that one is of the opposite sex
aversion to same-sex clothing/activities
appears mostly in childhood (age 2-4 years) and does not always persist into adulthood. more common in boys than girls.
- therapies for gender identity disorder
- 1. sex-reassignemtn surgery (body alterations)
2. alterations of gender identity
- disorder involving sexual attraction to unusual objects or sexual activities that are unusual in nature
- reliance on an inanimate object for sexual arousal
- transvestic fetishism
- when a man is aroused by wearing women's clothing although he still thinks of himself as a man (always male)
- sexually arousing fantasies involving children
person must be at least 16 and 5 years older than victim
- sexual relations between relatives to whom marriage is forbidden. often brother-sister, sometimes father-daughter (more pathological)
- a marked preference for obtaining sexual gratification by watching others in a state of undress or having sexual relations
- marked preference for obtaining sexual gratification by esposing one's genitals to an unwilling stranger
- behaviors that involve touching or rubbing up against a nonconsenting person (such as in a crowded train)
- seuxal sadism
- gaining sexual gratification from inflicting pain and humiliation on another
- sexual masochism
- sexual gratification through subjecting oneself to pain or humiliation
- psychodynamic perspective of paraphilias
- defensive in nature, guarding the ego from dealing with repressed fears and memories
- behavioral and cognitive perspectives of paraphilias
- paraphilias arise from classical conditioning that has linked sexual arousal with inappropriate stimuli
- biological perspective of paraphilias
- androgen (male hormone) plays a role
- therapies for paraphilias
- aversion therapy
satiation (masturbation while discussing out loud the deviant activity)
orgasmic reorientation (helps patients get aroused by conventional stimuli)
- criminal committment
- confines a person in a mental institution for determination of competency to stand trial
- civil committment
- mentally ill and dangerous person who has not proken a law can be deprived of liberty and incarcerated in a mental hospital
- insanity defense
- defendant cannot be held responsible for an illegal act if attributed to mental illness
- irresistable impulse
- if a pathological impulase or drive that the personal could not control drove them to commit the act, an insanity defense is legit
- m'naghten rule
- the defendant is laboring under a defect of reason and does not know what he is doing is wrong
- durham rule
- accused is not criminally repsonsible if his unlawful act was the product of a mental disease/defect
- rape survivors
- more likely to use medical care, anxiety depression, PTSD, long-term sexual problems, nightmares, somatic problems
- therapy for rapists/rape victims
- rapists--CBT, anger management, increased empathy, group therapy, biological treatment supplements.
victims--counseling, talking, empathy, hotlines, cope with traumatic event, CBT--feel anger
- psychotic disorder characterized by major distrubances in thought, emotion, and behavior
disordered thinking, fault perception and attention, flat or inappropriate affect, bizarre disturbances in motor activity
- five major areas of disturbance for schizophrenic patients
- thought, perception, attention
affect or emotion
- positive symptoms of schizophrenia
- excesses and distortions, such as hallucinations and delusions--what define an acute episode of schizophrenia
- negative symptoms of schizophrenia
- behavior deficits like avolition, alogia, anhedonia, flat affect, asociality
- apathy, or a lack of energy and seeming absence of interest to pursue routine activities
- negative thought disorder, mostly lack of speech, vague, or repetitive
- inability to experience pleasure in any activities, develop close relationships, etc
- flat affect
- no stimulus can elicit emotional response. flat expression, flat voice, no outward shows of emotion
- impairment in social relationships, poor social skills, few friends. first of the symptoms to show.
- disorganized symptoms
- disorganized speech: problems in organizing ideas and speaking so a listener can understand
bizarre behavior: rages, bouts of agitation, unusual dressing, strange acting, collecting things, inappropriate behavior, etc.
- disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia
- disorganized speech (thought disorder): problems organizing ideas to make listener understand.
bizarre behavior: any sort of v. bizarre behavior
- other schizophrenia symptoms (catatonia, inappropriate affect)
- catatonia: motor abnormatlities--bizarre gestures, increase in activity, flailing, or unusual postures, immobility
inappropriate affect: eomtional responses out of context (laughing at bad news, etc).
- early descriptions of schizophrenia
- kraeplein and bleuler called it dementia praecox. believed this and manic-depressive had the same core.
- categories of schizophrenia in the DSM (3)
- disorganized: speech disorganized, inhcoherent, neglects appearance, etc.
catatonic: alternate b/t immobility and excitement, echo speech of others, agitation, sleeping sickness, and catatonic schizophrenia
paranoid: prominent delusions, grandiose delusions or delusional jealousy, ideas of reference.
- undifferentiated schizophrenia
- one that does not conform to any of the three subtypes
family and twin studies
- there is much genetic disposition for schizophrenia, particularly with twins. studies with adoption show that genetic factors remain true.
- biochemical factors in schizophrenia
- dopamine activity--came from studies in which amphetamines produces schizophrenic results.
- brain and schizophrenia
- larger ventricles in the brain and more activity in the front part of the brain.
- social status and schizophrenia
- lower classes have higher prevalence of schizophrenia.
sociogenic hypothesis--degrading treatment by others, low education, and lack of rewards/opportunity may lead to stress in lower classes
social-selection theory--schizophrenics actually drift into the lower-class areas because of the debilitating disease
- family and schizophrenia (stress-diathesis model)
- schizophrenogenic mother--coined for the cold and dominant mother that produced schizophrenia in her child (not valid).
communication deviance could be a factor.
high expressed emotion can lead to more schizophrenia, as well.
- biological treatments for schizophrenia
- ECT and coma-inducing doses of insulin were used until proved ineffectie. prefrontal lobotomies are common contemporarily.
- drug therapies for schizophrenia
- antipsychotic drugs, referred to also as neuroleptics helpful. calms patients by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. reduce positive symptoms but also don't help negative symptoms. adjunctive medications include lithium, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers.
- psychological treatments for schizophrenia
- gradual, non-threatening development of a trusting relationship; social skills training; CBT: patients taught to recognize inappropriate affect, notice signs of relapse.
- 7 myths about schizophrenia
- 1. once schizophrenic, always schizophrenic
2. every schizophrenic is the same
3. rehabilitation can only begin after stabilization
4. psychotherapy doesn't work
5. patients must be on medication forever
6. patients can only do low-level jobs
7. families are etiological agents
- substance dependence
- presence of many problems related to a substance: trying to quit and failing, having physical or psychological problems worsened by drug, personal problems. accompanied by physiological dependence if tolerance or withdrawal is present.
- substance abuse
- less serious than substance dependence. maladaptive use of substance shown by: failure to meet obligations or repeated use where dangerous or continued use despite problems
- delirium tremens (DTs)
- withdrawal from alcohol in one who has been drinking for many years. tremulous, hallucinations can be visual or tactile. indicates addiction.
- polydrug abuse
- abusing more than one drug at once.
- does alcohol abuse--> alcohol dependence
- only in 3.5% of people.
and 2.5% of regular populace goes on to develop dependence, anyway.
- major sedatives
- originally created as a cure for morphine addiction
- LSD and hallucinogens
PCP (angel dust)
- etiology of substance abuse/dependence
- positive attitude-->experimentation-->regular use-->heavy use-->phys. dependence or abuse
- a drug that causes violent vomiting if alcohol is ingested
- covert sensitization
- problem drinkers must imagine being violently ill by drinking
- controlled drinking
- the idea that an alcoholic can imbibe substances in a controlled manner without reverting to previous tendencies. a "non-catastrophizing" approach
- biological treatments for heroin
- either heroin substitutes or heroin antagonists
- why are personality disorders on axis II rather than I?
- many people with personality disorders come in with panic disorder, or something else which is comorbid with a personality disorder. putting it on a different axis encourages clinicians to check for a personality disorder, as well.
- paranoid personality disorder
- pervasive suspiciousness of being harmed, deceived, or exploited.
unwarranted doubts about loyalty of others.
reluctance to confide in others.
hidden meanings read in others' behavior.
grudges for wrongs.
angry reactions to perceived attacks on character.
- odd/ecentric cluster of personality disorders
bear some resemblance to schizophrenia
- dramatic, emotional, erratic cluster of personality disorders
- anxious/fearful cluster of personality disorders
- schizoid personality disorder
- lack of desire/enjoyment of close relationships.
preference for solitude.
little interest in sex.
lack of friends.
indifference to praise or criticism from others.
flat affect, emotional detachment.
- schizotypal personality disorder
- ideas of reference
peculiar beliefs/ magical thinking.
peculiar patterns of speech.
extreme suspiciousness, paranoia.
lack of close friends
discomfort/anxiety around other people.
- etiology of odd/eccentric cluster
- family studies show a link with paranoid and schizophrenic to schizotypal, but not schizoid.
- borderline personality disorder
- frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, both real and imagined.
instability and extreme intensity in interpersonal relationships, marked by splitting: idealizing people one moment and hating them next.
unstable sense of self.
impulsve behavior, i.e. reckless spending, sexual promiscuity.
recurrent suicidal and self-mutilating behavior.
extreme emotional lability.
chronic feelings of emptiness.
extreme problems controlling anger.
- etiology of borderline personality disorder
- biologically runs in families; high in neuroticism, which runs in families. front lobal functioning?
object-relations theory says that inconsistent parenting or adverse childhood experiences can lead to the disorder. childhood sexual abuse/neglect or absent mothers also are a risk.
linehan's diathesis-stress says that a genetic predisposition along with an invalidating family environment
- histrionic personality disorder
- strong need to be center of attention.
inappropriately sexually seductive behavior.
rapidly shifting expression of emotions.
use of appearance to get attention.
speech impressionistic, passionate opinions lacking detail.
exaggerated, theatrical emotions.
misreads relationships as being more intimate than they are.
- narcissistic personality disorder.
- grandiose view of one's importance, arrogance.
preoccupation with one's sucess, brilliance, beauty.
extreme need for admiration.
strong sense of entitlement.
tendency to exploit others.
envy of others.
- characteristics of antisocial personality disorder
- repeated law breaking.
irritableness and aggressiveness.
reckless disregard for own safety and that of others.
lack of remorse.
age of at least 18.
evidence of conduct disorder before age 15.
antisocial behavior not occuring exclusively during schizophrenic or manic episodes.
- characteristics of psychopathy
- less antisocial behavior and more psychopathic thoughts and feelings.
poverty of emotions, no sense of shame. superficially charming but manipulative.
complete lack of feelings for others.
- role of family in antisocial PD and psychopathy
- lack of affection and severe parental rejection primary causes. physical abuse, inconsistency, parental loss. antisocial behavior of father. inconsistent or no discipline.
- psychophysiological disorders
(AKA psychosomatic disorders)
- asthma, hypertension, headache, gastritis--characterized by physical symptoms that are caused or can be worsened by psychological factors
- general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
- hahaha. created by hans selye. 3 phases of model relating biological response to stress:
1. alarm reaction, nervous system activated by stress.
2. resistance, organism adapts to stress or is damaged.
3. exhaustion, organism suffers or dies from irreversible damage.
- josh's mother's maiden name
- structural social support
functional social support
- structural deals with the kind of people in one's life--spouse, family members.
functional deals with the quality of relationships.
- somatic-weakness theory
- the connection between stress and a particular psychosomatic disorder is a weakness in the specific bodily organ.
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