Glossary of Abnormal Psych 1

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Terms applied to the many problems that seem closely tied to the human brain or mind
Psychopathology, maladjustment, emotional disturbance, mental illness
Field devoted to the scientific study of problems with mental health
Abnormal psychology
Workers in the field of abnormal psychology who gather information carefully so they may describe, predict and explain the phenomena they study
Clinical scientists
Detects, assess and treats abnormal patters of functioning
Clinical practitioners
Pattern of psychological abnormality that is different, extreme, unusual and bizarre
Pattern of psychological abnormality that is unpleasant and upsetting to the person
Pattern of psychological abnormality that is interfering with the person's ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way
Pattern of psychological abnormality that is harmful to the person or others
stated and unstated rules for proper conduct
History, values, insititutions, habits, skills, technology and arts which norms form from
Judgments of abnormality depend on this
specific circumstances
A person who deviates from common behavior patterns or displays odd or whimsical behavior, but is still psychologically healthy
A procedure to help change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior
Treatment or therapy
Clinical theorist who thought that the concept of mental illness was a myth that societies creat
Thomas Szasz
Three key features of all forms of therapy according to Jerome Frank
1. a sufferer who seeks relief from the healer. 2. a trained healer whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer or social group. 3. a series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer, through which the healer tries to change the sufferer's emotional state, attitude and behavior
Operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull to let out evil spirits causing the abnormal behavior
Treatment for abnormality in early societies by coaxing evil spirits to leave the person's body
a priest performing an exorcism
Father of modern medicine who saw abnormal behavior as a disease caused by internal physical problems and natural causes
Hippocrates' four fluids
large numbers of people in the middle ages who had shared delusions and hallucinations
mass madness
groups of people suddenly start to jump, dance and go into convulsions. thought to be caused by tarantula bites
people thought they were posessed by wolves or other animals
First physician to specialize in mental illness. Founder of the modern study of mental dysfunction
Johann Weyer
Shrine devoted to the humane treatment of people which lead to mental disorders; forerunner of today's community mental health programs
Gheel in Belgium
Institutions whose primary purpose was to care for people with mental illness
hospital name which came to mean "chaotic uproar"
French chief physician who first reformed mental institutions
Philippe Pinel
English quaker who brought reform to england and founded the York retreat
William Tuke
Methods of Pinel and Tuke which emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful techniques
moral treatment
Person most responsible for the early spread of moral treatment in the US
Benjamin Rush
Boston schoolteacher who really made moral treatment a concern in the US
Dorothea Dix
State run public mental institutions in the US, established by Dix
state hospitals
View that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes
somatogenic perspective
view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
psychogenic perspective
German researcher whose work was largely responsible for the rebirth of the somatogenic perspective
Emil Kraeplin
German neurologist who injected matter from syphillis sores into patients suffering from general paresis and found none of the patients developed symptoms of syphillis
Richard von Krafft-Ebing
Selective elimination of individuals' ability to reproduce
Procedure that places people in a trancelike mental state during which they become extremely suggestible
Bodily ailments that have no apparent physical basis
hysterical disorders
Freud's theory which holds that many forms of abnormal and normal psychological functioning are psychogenic and that the unconsious processes are at the root of functioning
form of Freud's therapy where patients visit therapists in their offices for sessions of approximately an hour and then went about their daily activities
outpatient therapy
Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
psychotropic medications
drugs to correct extremely confused and distorted thinking
antipsychotic drugs
drugs to lift the modd of depressed people
antidepressant drugs
drugs to reduce worry and tension
antianxiety drugs
policy which calls for the releasing of patients from public mental hospitals
philosophy with an emphasis on community care for people with severy psychological disturbances
community mental health approach
arrangement by which an individual directly pays a psychotherapist for counseling services
private psychotherapy
interventions aimed at deterring mental disorders before they can develop
study and encouragement of positive feelings such as optimism and happiness; positive traits like hard work and wisdom; positive abilities such as social skills; and group directed virtues like generosity and tolerance
positive psychology
Coverage program in which the insurance company determines such issues as which therapists its clients may choose, cost of sessions, number of sessions for which clients can be reimbursed
managed care program
laws that direct insurance companies to offer equal coverage for mental and medical problems
pariety laws
Theory with its emphasis on unconscious psychological problems as the cause of abnormal behavior
psychoanalytic perspective
Uses effective psychotropic drugs and is another name for the somatogenic view
biolical perspective
physicians who complete three to four additional years of training after med school in the treatment of abnormal mental functioning
professionals who earn a doctorate in clinical psychology by completing 4-5 years of grad training along w/ a one year internship at a mental hospital
largest psychotherapy service
psychiatric social workers
people who try to determine which concepts best explain & predict abnormal behavior, which treatments are most effective, and what changes might be required
clinical researchers
general understanding of the nature, causes and treatments of abnormality
nomothetic understanding
process of systematically gathering and evaluating information through careful observations to gain an understanding of a phenomenon
scientific method
characteristic which can vary
research focussing on one individual; detailed description of a person's life and psychological problems
case study
one of the best known case studies which focusses on a woman with DID.
The three Faces of Eve
research procedure used to determine the corelationship between variables
correlational method
how closely do 2 variables correspond?
direction and magnitude of a correlation expressed statistically
correlation coefficient
if statistical analysis indicates chance is unlikely to cause the correlation then researches call the correlation___________
statistically significant
study which reveals the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a particular population
epidemiological studies
number of new cases that emerge during a given period of time
total number of cases in the population during a given period of time
correlational studies where researchers observe the same subjects over a long period of time
longitudinal studies
research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the effect on another variable is observed
manipulated variable
independent variable
variable being observed
dependent variable
variables other than the independent variable that may also be affecting the dependent variable
group of subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable
control group
subjects who are exposed to the independent variable
experimental group
any selection procedure that ensures that every subject in the experiment is as likely to be placed in one group as the other
random assignment
an experiment in which subjects don't know whether they are in the experimental or the control condition to avoid bias
blind design
something that looks or tastes like real therapy but has none of the key ingredients
experimenter bias
Rosenthal effect
both participators and experimenters are "blind" in the experiment
double blind
investigators don't randomly assign subjects to control and experimental groups but make use of groups which already exist. Also called mixed design
nature itself manipulates the independent variable while the experimenter observes the effects
natural experiments
experimenters produce abnormal-like behavior in laboratory subjects, then conduct experiments on them in hope of shedding life on real life abnormality
analogue experiments
experiment which measures a single subject both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable
single-subject experimental design
Perspectives used to explain events; also known as paradigms
full understanding of thoughts, emotions and behavior must include an understanding of a biological basis
biological model
nerve cells in the brain
support cells in the brain
bottom part of the brain containing the medulla, pons and cerebellum
part of the brain in the middle
part of the brain at the top which consists of the cerebrum, thalamus and hypothalamus
part of the brain consisting of the cortex, corpus callosum, basal ganglia, hippocampus and amygdala
disorder marked by violent emotional outbursts, memory loss, suicidal thinking, involuntary body movements and absurd beliefs. Traced to a loss of cells in the basal ganglia
Huntington's disease
antenna-like extensions located at one end of the neuron which receives impulses
long fiber extending from the neuron body where the impulses travel down
at the far end of the neuron, where impulses are transmitted through
nerve endings
tiny space which seperates one neuron from the next
chemical released by one neuron that crosses the synapstic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons
neurotransmittor linked to certain anxiety disorders
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
neurotransmittor linked to schizophrenia
neurotransmittor linked to depression
seratonin & norepinephrine
chemicals released by glands into the bloodstream
glands which secrete cortisol
adrenal glands
3 factors attributing to biological abnormalities
1. genetics 2. evolution 3. viral infections
segments of chromosomes that control the characteristics and traits a person inherits
abnormal form of the appropriate gene that emerges by accident
Preclinical phase
new drug is developed and identified and tested (5 years)
clinical phase I
safety screening (1-5 years)
clinical phase II
preliminary testing (2 years)
clinical phase III
final testing (3-5 years)
review by FDA
drug is approved or disapproved (1.5 years)
postmarketing surveillance
testing continues long after drug is out to check for long term side effects (10 years)
drugs mainly affecting emotions and thought processes
psychotropic medications
drugs which help reduce tension and anxiety
antianxiety drugs
drugs which help improve the mood of people who are depressed
antidepressant drugs
Also called mood stabelizers, these drugs help steady the mood of those w/ bipolar disorder
antibipolar drugs
drugs which help reduce the confusion, hallucinations, and delusions of psychotic disorders
antipsychotic drugs
form of biological treatment used primarily on depressed patients where 2 electrodes are attached to the patient's forehead and an electrical current is passed through the brain
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
form of biological treatment which is brain surgery for mental disorders
portugese neuropsychiatrist who developed the process of labotamy
Antonio de Egas Moniz
process where a surgeon would cut the connection between the brain's frontal and lower centers of the brain.
oldest and most famous of the psychological models; believes a person's behavior is determined largely by underlying psychological forces of the unconscious
psychodynamic model
internal forces which interact w/ one another
abnormal symptoms are viewed as a result of ______ between the internal forces in the psychodynamic model
assumption that no behavior is accidental; all is determined by past experiences
deterministic assumption
Freud's theory explaining both normal and abnormal psychological function
Freud's term for the instinctual needs, drives and impulses in people.
Id always seeks gratification according to this
pleasure principle
sexual energy
Unconsciously seeks gratification but does so in accordance with the knowledge we acquire through experience; employs reason guides us to know when we can and can't express those impulses
knowledge we acquire through experience that it can be unacceptable to express our id impulses outright
reality principle
basic strategies the ego develops to control unacceptable id impulses and avoid anxiety they arouse.
ego defense mechanisms
most basic ego defense mechanism which prevents unacceptable impulses from reaching consciousness
psychological force which represents a person's values or ideals
condition in which the id, ego and superego don't mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development
person refuses to acknowledge the existence of an external source of anxiety
person imagines events as a means of satisfying unacceptable, anxiety-producing desires that would otherwise go unfulfilled
person attributes own unacceptable impulses, motives, or desires to other individuals
person creates a socially acceptable reason for an action that actually reflects unacceptable motives
person adopts behavior that is the exact opposite of impulses he or she is afraid to acknowlege
reaction formation
person displaces hostility away from a dangerous object and onto a safer substitute
person represses emotional reactions in favor of overly logical response to a problem
intellectualization (isolation)
person tries to make up for unacceptable desires or acts frequently through ritualistic behaviors
person retreats from an upsetting conflict to an early developmental stage at which no one is expected to behave maturely or responsibly
person tries to cover up a personal weakness by focusing on another, more desirable trait
person expresses sexual and aggressive energy in ways that are acceptable to society
all of Freud's theories
psychodynamic theory emphasizing the role of the ego and consider it a more independent and powerful force than Freud did
Ego theory
psychodynamic theory which gives the greatest attention to the role of the self and believe that the basic human motive is to strengthen the wholeness of the self
self theory
unified personality
psychodynamic theory which proposes that people are motivated mainly by a need to have relationships with others and that severe problems in the relationships between children and their caregivers may lead to abnormal development
object relations theory
psychodynamic theory where the therapist tells the patient to describe any thought, feeling or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant.
free association
unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy
when patients act and feel toward the therapist as they did or do twoard important persons in their life
Freud called this the "royal road to the unconscious"
a reliving of past repressed feelings
process where the patient and therapist must examine the same issues over and over in the course of many sessions, each time with greater clarity
working through
single problem patients choose to work on
dynamic focus
This model believes that our actions are determined largely by our experiences in life.
behavior model
responses an organism makes to its environment
process by which behaviors change in response to the environment
principles of learning
simple form of learning where researches manipulate stimuli and rewards
learning to behave in certain ways as a result of receiving rewards
operant conditioning
satisfying consequence
where individuals learn responses simply by observing other individuals and repeating their behaviors
learning occurs by temporal association
classical conditioning
first demonstrated classical conditioning with dogs
Ivan Pavlov
One method, often applied to phobias, where clients step by step learn to react calmly instead of with fear to the objects or situations they dread
systematic desensitization
list of feared objects or situations, starting with those that are less feared and ending with the ones most dreaded
fear hierarchy
people must have confidence that they can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary according to Bandura
special intellectual capacities to think, remember and anticipate
cognitive abilities
Two clinicians in the 60's who proposed that cognitive processes are at the center of behavior, thought and emotions
Albert Ellis & Aaron Beck
Model that says we can best understand abnormal functioning by looking to cognition
cognitive model
sources of abnormal functioning according to the cognitive theorists
disturbing or inaccurate assumptions and attitudes and illogical thinking processes
drawing of broad negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event.
Beck's approach where therapists help clients recognize the negative thoughts, biased interpretations and errors in logic that dominate their thinking & cause them to feel depressed
cognitive therapy
model focussing on the broader dimensions of human existance
humanistic-existential model
optimists who believe that humans are born with the natural tendency to be friendly, cooperative and constructive
fulfill this potential for goodness and growth
theorists who believe humans must have an accurate awareness of themselves, but don't believe people are naturally inclined to live positively
humanistic-existential therapist, most famous, first
Carl Rogers
warm supportive approach in therapy, contrasting sharply with psychodynamic techniques of the day. created a supportive climate where clients feel able to look at themselves honestly and acceptingly
client centered therapy
standards that tell people they are lovable only when they conform to certain guidelines
conditions of worth
full and warm acceptance of the client
unconditional positive regard
skillful listening and restatements
accurate empathy
sincere communication
process where clients look at themselves with honesty and acceptance
humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role-playing and self discovery exercises.
Gestalt Therapy
technique where Gestalt therapists refuse to meet their clients expectations or demands
skillful frustration
techniqe where gestalt therapists instruct clients to act out various roles
role playing
where people are encouraged to accept responsibility for their lives and problems
existential therapy
model where abnormal behavior is best understood in the light of social and cultural forces that influence an individual
sociocultural model
family is a system of interacting parts who relate to one another in consistent ways and follow rules unique to each family
family systems theory
family structure where family members are grossly overinvolved in each other's activities, thoughts and feelings
enmeshed structure
family structure marked by very rigid boundaries between members
conducted family study of societal labels and roles
David Rosenhan
approaches that seek to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups
culture-sensitive therapy
therapies geared to the special pressures of being a woman in western society
gender-sensitive therapy or feminist therapies
format of therapy in which a therapist meets with a group of clients who have similar problems
group therapy
group made up of people with similar problems who help and support each other without the direct leadership of a clinician (also called a mutual help group)
self-help group
therapy format in which the therapist meets with all members of a family and helps them to change in therapeutic ways
family therapy
one family systems approach where therapists try to change the family power structure
structural family therapy
therapists try to help members change harmful patterns of communication
conjoint family therapy
therapists work with 2 individuals who are in a long term relationship
couple therapy or marital therapy
treatment approach that emphasizes community care
community mental health treatment
consists of efforts to improve community attitudes and policies; goal to prevent psychological disorders all together
primary prevention
indentifying and treating psychological disorders in the early stages, before they become serious
secondary prevention
goal is to provide effective treatment as soon as it is needed so that moderate or severe disorders don't become long-term problems
tertiary prevention
explanations that attribute the cause of abnormality to an interaction of genetic, biological, cognitive, social and societal influences
biopsychosocial theories
individual information about the clients
idiographic understanding
collecting of relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion
used to determine how and why a person is behaving abnormally
clinical assessment
set up common steps to be followed whenever an assessment is administered
consistency of assessment measures
where different judges independently agree on how to score and interpret an assessment
interrater reliability
assessment accurately measures what it is supposed to measure
a given assessment appears to be valid simply because it makes sense and seems reasonable
face validity
assessment tool's ability to predict future characteristics or behavior
predictive validity
degree to which the measures gathered from one tool agree with measures gathered from other assessment techniques
concurrent validity
face to face encounter in which clinicians ask questions of clients, weight their responses and reactions, and learn about them and their psychological problems
clinical interview
clinician asks open ended questions
unstructured interview
clinician asks prepared questions
structured interview
standard set of questions designed for all interviews
interview schedule
set of questions and observations that systematically evaluate the client's awareness, orientation with regard to time and place, attention span, memory, judgment and insight, thought content and processes, mood and appearance
mental status exam
devices for gathering information about a few aspects of a person's psychological functioning
tests requiring subjects to interpret vague stimuli (inkblots, pictures, drawings)
projective tests
Projective tests
rorschach test, TAT, sentence completion test and drawings
test designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors, beliefs and feelings that people evaluate as characteristic or uncharacteristic of them
personality inventory
most widely used personality inventory
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory)
tests which ask people to provide detailed information about themselves, but these tests focus on only one specific area of functioning
response inventory
measures the severity of such emotions as anxiety, depression and anger
Affective inventories
used by behavioral and sociocultural clinicians, asks respondents to indicate how they would react in a variety of social situations
social skills inventory
reveals a person's typical thoughts and assumptions and can uncover counterproductive patterns of thinking
cognitive inventories
clinicians use this, which measures physiological responses as possible indicators of psychological problems
psychophysiological tests
popular psychophysiological test
polygraph/lie detector
questions whose answers are known to be yes
control questions
tests measuring brain structure and activity directly
neurological tests
records brain waves

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