Glossary of Abnormal Psyc Ch. 2 vocab
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- multidimensional integrative approach
- approach to the study of psychopathology, which holds that psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors
- Long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, the basic physical units of heredity that appear as locations on chromosomes
- diatheses-stress model
- Hypothese that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder.
- suceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder
- reciprocal gene-environment model
- Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create enviornmental risk factors that promote the disorder.
- Study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, throughts, and emotions.
- Individual nerve cell responsible for transmitting information
- synaptic cleft
- space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next
- chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Their relative excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological disorders
- chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands
- brain circuits
- neurotransmitter currents or neural pathways in the brain
- action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft
- chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects
- chemical substance that produces effects opposite thos of a particular neurotransmitter
- neurotransmitter involved in information processing, coordination of movement, inhibition, and restraint; it also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors, all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia.
- cognitive science
- Field of study that examines ho humans and other animals acquire, process, store, and retrieve information
- learned helplessness
- Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives (whether in reality they do or not).
- learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and the consequences of that behavior.
- prepared learning
- Certain associations can be learned more readily than others because this ability has been adaptive for evolution
- implicit memory
- condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events even though he or she acts in response to them
- fight or flight response
- biological reaction to alarming stressors that musters the body's resources (e.g., blood flow, respiration) to resist or flee the threat.
- pattern of action elicited by an external even and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response
- enduring period of emotionality
- conscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time.
- developmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several different causes
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