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Glossary of Abeka Chemistry Flashcards for Chapter 12

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Adsorption
The attraction of a substance to the surface of a solid (12.5)
Brownian motion
The random movement of colloidal particles (12.5)
Colligative property
Any property THAT DEPENDS on the number of particles NOT the identity or properties of the particles. (12.4)
Colloidal dispersion (colloid)
A mixture containing tiny clumps or particles that remain suspended in a mixture. (12.5)
Concentration
An expression of the amount of solute present in a given amount of solution (or solvent). (12.3)
Crystallization
The deposition of solute particles from the solution on the surfaces of undissolved solute cystals. (12.2)
Dissociation
The separtion of ions from each other that occurs when they are solvated. (12.1)
Electrolytes
Compounds that dissolve in water to produce ions which can conduct an electrical current. (12.4)
Henry's Law
At a given temp., the equilibrium concentration of a dissolved gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas. (12.2)
Hydrated
A term describing an ion (or molecule) surrounded by water molecules (12.1)
Immiscible
A term describing two liquids which are not soluble in each other to any significant extent. (12.1)
Ionization
The separation of molecules into ions in solution. (12.1)
Micelle
A tiny spherically shaped emulsified droplet. (12.5)
Miscible:
A term describing two liquids which are completely soluble in each other in all proportions. (12.1)
Molality
The number of moles of wolute per kilogram of solvent. (12.3)
Molarity (molar concentration)
The number of moles of solute per liter of solution. (12.3)
Nonelectrolytes
Substances that do not ionize or dissociate in aqueous solutions to produce ions which an conduct an electrical current. (12.4)
Osmosis
The flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane from the less concentrated to the more concentrated solution. (12.4)
Saturated solution
A solution that contains ALL the solute possible under equilibrium conditions at a given temperature. (12.2)
Semipermeable membranes
Substances which permit the passage of some molecules but not others. (12.4)
Examples of semipermeable membranes.
Cellophane, parchment, polyvinyl chloride, skin, biological membranes (12.4)
Examples of a colligative property
vapor pressure lowering, freezing point depression or boiling point elevation (12.4)
Solubility
The amount of solute present in a saturated solution. (12.2)
Solute
The substance that is dissolved. (12.1)
Solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. (12.1)
Solution equilibrium
The condition in which the rate of dissolution equals the rate of crystallization; a type of dynamic equlibrium. (12.2)
Solvated
A term describing an ion (or molecule) surrounded by any type of solvent molecules. (12.1)
Solvation (hydration)
The process in which solvate moledules or ions are surrounded by solvent (water) molecules. (12.1)
Solvent
The substance that does the dissolving. (12.1)
Supersaturated
A term used to describe a solution that contains more solute that it could under equlibrium conditions. (12.2)
Tyndall effect
Visible scattering of light along the path of a beam of light as it passes through a colloid. (12.5)
Unsaturated
A term used to dscribe a solution that contains less solute than it could at equilibrium at a specific temperature. (12.2)
Vapor pressure
The pressure exerted by the molecules of a gas in the vapor state (12.4)

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