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Glossary of Abeka Biology - Chapter 2

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The shoot system
The part of the plant which is usually found above ground, holding up the leaves toward the sun for the manufacture of food and providing for the production of flowers, fruits, and seeds. Leaves are part of the shoot system
The root system
The part of the plant which is ordinarily under ground, anchoring the plant, and which functions in absorption of nutrients and storage of food"
System
A group of structures designed to
function together as a unit to perform
a particular job for an organism
Organ
A structure withing a system which has a definite form and performs a definite function of functions for the system
Veins
Pipelines that carry food and water(sap)throughout the blade
Sessile leaves
Leaves that lack a petiole
Nodes
The points at which leaves grow from the stem
Leaf arrangements
Opposite(two leaves from each node), alternate(one leaf from each node), whorled(three or more leaves from each node), and rosette(a cluster of leaves around the base)
Phototropism
The growth response of a plant stimulated by light
Tissue
Living material that is made to do a certain task for the organs of an organism
Most of the body of the plant is __________ ______
Structural tissue
Type of Structural tissue
Epidermal tissue, cork tissue, parenchyma tissue, support and strengthening tissue
Vascular tissue
Sap-conducting tissues
Types of Vascular tissues
Xylem(transports water & minerals up) and Phloem(transports food down)
Meristematic
Fast growing tissues that make new cells for when the plant is growing and when it is repairing itself
Cambium tissue
One of the most important types of meristematic tissue
Epidermis
A single layer of epidermal cells that protects and covers the leaf
Stomata
Tiny openings or leaf pores that allow air to move through the leaf for photosynthesis and respiration purposes
Transpiration
The loss of water vapor from leaves or stems
Mesophyll
The middle portion of the leaf where the most photosynthesis happens
Venation
The pattern of the veins within the leaves
•Parallel venation
•Pinnate venation
•Palmate venation
•Veins are usually parallel to each other
•Veins are in a branching pattern
•Two or more major veins sticking out like fingers
Parts of a cell
Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles, cell wall
Photosynthesis
How plants turn sunlight into food
Cellular respiration
A process of "burning" food to release energy
Abscission layer
A special layer of cells that severs the base of the petiole from the stem causing it to die and fall off
Turgor pressure
Pressure that effects the opening and closing of the stomata

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