Glossary of A subset of protozoa - Coccidian organisms and Avian
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- What does Phylum Apicomplexa consist of?
- The intestinal coccidia
- what are the 4 species of intestinal coccidia?
- 1. Blastocystis hominis
2. Isospora belli
3. Cryptosporidium parvum
4. Cyclospora cayetanensis
- what are general characteristics of coccidia?
- -used to be sporozoa
-have a sexual stage in the life cycle - oocysts
-most sever inf. in immunocomp.
- How big is the blastocystis hominis cyst?
- usually about 10u, can range from 5-32 though.
-Has three sporocysts surrounding surrounding central pallor
- What is the significance of Blastocystis hominis?
- Commensal in 10-16% of people, but only causes diarrhea if there are >5 per field
-Normal to find in a specimen.
- What sets B. hominis apart from the other 3 coccidia?
- It's the only one with a cyst; the other three are oocysts.
- What is the morphology of Isospora belli?
- -Oocyst that's 25-35 x 10-15u
-has 1-2 sporocysts
-may stain acid fast
- Where is Isospora belli significant?
- -Endemic in brazil, Columbia and Chile.
-Asymptomatic, may cause diarrh.
-Causes dysentary in immunocomp.
- what is the most significant of the coccidia?
What does it cause?
- Milwaukee's very own claim to fame, Cryptosporidium parvum
- Where is Cryptosporidium found?
- Worldwide in drinking H2O and swimming pools - oocysts resist chlorine.
- What are the hosts of Crypto parvum?
- Humans and other animals
- What is the morphology of cryptospordium?
- IT'S TINY! 4-6u oocyst
Have to use acid fast stain to be able to see it - that's why it took forever to identify in 1993 outbreak.
- What features are seen in the oocyst?
- an Attachment organ, up to 4 sporozoites.
- What are symptoms of Cryptosporidiosis, seen in three levels of the infection?
- -Mild inf: flu-like symp.
-Acute inf: frothy, explosive diarrhea
-Chronic inf. may disseminate to other organs w/ 50% death rate.
- What 2 bases is Cryptosporidium diagnosed on?
- 1. Morphological
- What two methods are used for morphological diagnosis of Cryptosporidium?
- 1. Sheather's sugar flotation
2. Modified acid fast stain
- why are the two methods used?
- Sheathers - concentrates the diarrhea, not ethyl b/c the oocyst is too light.
Mod AFstain so you can see it.
- what conditions should you work under to identify cryptosporidium?
- Biological safety cabinet!!!
- What 2 medicines are used to treat cryptosporidium?
- How is Cryptosporidium prevented?
- 1. H2O filtration
2. Good hygiene
- What is cyclospora cayetanensis similar to, but how is it different?
- Similar to Cryptosporidium, but bigger. 8-10u
- Where is Cyclospora cayetanensis found and transmitted?
- Found in Warm/moist climates
Waterborne - likes storage tanks
lettuce and basil
- What are the hosts of Cyclospora cayetanensis?
- Humans and maybe cattle
- How is Cyclospora identified and diagnosed? what symptoms does i cause?
- Very similar to Cryptosporidium for all, except bigger. Acid fast stain.
- How is Cyclospora cayetanensis treated?
How is it prevented?
Bactrim is them put together
To prevent: Avoid contaminated water and wash your berries
- What organism comprises the Tissue coccidia?
What subphylum is this again?
- Subphylum Apicomplexa
- what disease does Toxoplasma gondii cause?
Where is it found?
- What are the definitive hosts of T. gondii? Why?
- Domestic or wild cats - they house the mature parasite
- What are the intermediate hosts of T. gondii? Why?
- Humans, rodents, cattle, others
They house the larval or sexually immature parasites but are necessary to lifecyle.
- What testing is most important for diagnosing Toxoplasmosis?
- What kind of parasite is seen for morphologically identifying Toxoplasma?
- Tachyzoite - 3-6u
- What type of parasite is Toxoplasma to humans?
What type of specimen is it seen in?
- Obligate intracellular parasite.
Only can see in a biopsy or exudate from tissue.
- What are 2 ways Toxoplasmosis can be transmitted to humans?
- 1. from Oocysts in cat feces
2. From Bradyzoites in raw meat
-Humans ingest them and macrophages phagocytize.
- What's an important and concerning happening in the life cycle of toxoplasma?
- Tachyzoites in blood can cross the placenta and enter the CNS of a fetus, causing congenital infection.
- what are 3 types of Toxoplasma that humans can have?
- 1. Acquired toxoplasmosis
- what symptoms are seen in acquired toxoplasmosis?
- Mild, flu-like, might not know.
- What symptoms of acquired toxoplasmosis are seen in IMMUNOCOMPROMISED?
- Much more severe:
- What is the most severe form of toxoplasmosis?
What tissues are affected?
CNS: mental retardation/seizures
Blueberry muffin petechiae on forehead.
- What is recrudesent toxoplasmosis?
What tissue is affected?
- Infection that arises though the patient had it years earlier
Flares when immunity is compromised.
- How is toxoplasmosis diagnosed?
- Microscopic - tissue biopsy in histology lab
- What 4 serological tests are used for diagnosing toxoplasmosis?
- 1. Indirect flouresc. Ab
3. Torch panels
4. Ophthalmology exam
- What is a TORCH panel?
- TO = toxoplasma
R = Rubella
C = cytomegalovirus
H = herpes
All have smlar symptoms, so tests for them all.
- How is toxoplasmosis treated?
- Pyramethamin and SUlfandiazine, but you don't really need to know this Keren.
- How do you prevent Toxoplasmosis?
- Cook meat well
Don't go near cat poop
- What phylum of Protozoa is not very well understood and has 5 genera you don't need to memorize?
- Phylum Microspora
- Who are Microsporidian infections seen in usually?
- Immunocompromised, rare otherwise.
- Who are usual hosts of microspora?
- Humans, insects, animals
- What is the morphology of Microscpora?
- Small; 1-4u, seen with electron micrograph.
- What 5 diseases do Microspora cause?
- 1. Enteritis, cholecystitis
4. Hepatitis, peritonitis
5. Sinusitis, pneumonitis
- What is cholecystitis?
- Inflammation of the gallbladder. Keratitis = corneal inflamm.
Conjunct = around the eye
- How is Microsporan infection diagnosed?
- -Acid fast stain (partially AF)
-Electron microscopy is best
- What are the 4 Acid fast protozoa in Phylum apicomplexa and Microspora then?
- Changing pace now..
What subphylum comprises Atrial Amoeba?
- Subphylum Sarcodina (amoeba)
- What 2 species are in subphylum Sarcodina?
- 1. Naegleria fowleri
- Where is Naegleria fowleri primarily found?
- In lake bottoms in warm places like Florida.
- How do you get Naegleria fowleri?
- by diving to lake bottoms
- What type of life cycle does N. fowleri have?
- Trophozoites live in water
Get in nasal pssgs of humans
Penetrate cribiform plate
Enter brain, produce enzymes, turn brain to jelly.
- What disease does Naegleria fowleri cause?
- Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis
- What are the symptoms of prim. amoebic meningoencephalitis?
- -Blocked nose
-Severe frontal headache
-Death in 4-5 days
Boy in florida got it... sad
- How is N. fowleri diagnosed?
- By finding trophs about 10-20u in spinal fluid CSF, along w/ RBCs and WBCs
- How is N. fowleri encephalitis treated and prevented?
- Amphotericin B
Don't swim in Florida
- What is a very similar organism to N. fowleri?
- Acanthamoeba - caused corneal infection in bball player cuz he didn't wash his contacts gross
- What disease does Acanthamoeba commonly cause?
- How is Acanthamoebiasis diagnosed?
- Immunoflourescent Ab
Morphology - see an ameboid w/ a vacuole.
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