Glossary of AU Biology 110 Chapter 9

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acetyl CoA
A molecule produced by the reaction of pyruvate with CoA.
ATP synthase
An ATP-synthesizing enzyme found in the membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria.
cellular respiration
Any process of ATP production that involves a transfer of electrons from a reduced compound to an electron transport chain and ultimately to an electron acceptor.
coenzyme A(CoA)
An organic compound that serves as a cofactor in a wide variety of reactions catalyzed by cellular enzymes.
electron carrier
Any reduced molecule that readily donates electrons to more oxidized molecules.
electron transport
The third phase of cellular respiration, in which the potential energy of electrons is stepped down, resulting in the release of energy and the production of ATP.
electron transport chain
The molecules involved in redox reactions that step down the potential energy of electrons. This process results in the release of energy, which is harnessed to produce ATP.
Any of several metabolic pathways that allow continued production of ATP in the absence of oxygen by transferring electrons from a reduced compound (such as glucose) to an electron receptor other than oxygen.
The first phase of cellular respiration or fermentation, in which a series of chemical reactions oxidize glucose to produce pyruvate and ATP.
Krebs cycle
The second phase of cellular respiration, in which a series of chemical reactions in the mitochondria break down acetyl CoA, the product of glycolysis, to carbon dioxide and produce ATP and reduced compounds to feed into the electron transport chain.
membrane protein
A protein associated with the cell membrane, either attached to or inserted into the membrane.
All the chemical reactions that occur in living cells.
mitochondrial matrix
The solution inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. It contains the enzymes of the Krebs cycle.
An organelle of eukaryotic cells containing the enzymes that catalyze the reactions of aerobic respiration. Mitochondria oxidize carbohydrates and fatty acids and produce ATP (along with carbon dioxide, water, and heat).
proton gradient
The graduated difference in the concentration of protons across a membrane.
A series of chemical reactions and electron transfers that converts the energy of light into the chemical energy stored in glucose.
A chlorophyll-containing organelle in plant cells, in which photosynthesis occurs.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
A molecule that can be hydrolyzed to release free energy; universally used by cells to store and transfer energy.
chemiosmotic hypothesis
The proposal by Peter Mitchell that there is an indirect linkage between electron transport and ATP production.
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
An ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for energy storage.
concentration gradient
The difference in concentration of a solute across a cell membrane. Ions and molecules flow from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.

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