Glossary of AU Biology 110 Chapter 18

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basal transcription complex
A multiprotein machine formed when all of the basal transcription factors have assembled at the promoter in response to interactions with regulatory transcription factors and activators.
basal transcription factor
A protein that binds to the promoter and helps to initiate transcription. Basal transcription factors must be present for transcription to occur, but they do not provide much in the way of regulation.
The entire complex of protein and DNA that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
chromatin remodeling
The release of DNA near the promoter of a gene from its tight interaction with proteins, which allows RNA polymerase to make contact with the promoter and transcribe the gene.
chromatin-remodeling complex
A type of protein that restructures chromatin through a series of reactions that are dependent on ATP.
A regulatory DNA sequence in eukaryotes that enhances the transcription of certain genes, which may be located at a distance from the enhancer.
The process by which messenger RNA (mRNA) is made from a DNA template.
Any of a group of proteins intimately associated with DNA in eukaryotic nuclei. DNA wraps around histones to form a complex repeating structure called chromatin.
A repeating, beadlike structure of eukaryotic chromosomes, consisting of about 200 nucleotides of DNA wrapped twice around eight histone proteins.
A short sequence of DNA that facilitates binding of RNA polymerase to enable the transcription of downstream genes.
promoter-proximal element
A regulatory sequence that is located close to the promoter and bind regulatory proteins.
regulatory sequence
A section of DNA that is involved in controlling the activity of other genes.
regulatory transcription factor
A protein that binds to enhancers and promoter-proximal elements and is responsible for the expression of particular genes in particular cell types and at particular stages of development.
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA from ribonucleotides, using a DNA template.
TATA box
A specific base sequence where a sigma-like protein binds and allows RNA polymerase to contact DNA.
TATA-binding protein (TBP)
A protein that binds to the promoter and helps to initiate transcription.

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