Glossary of AU Biology 110 Chapter 15

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one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis
The proposal that each gene is responsible for making one (and only one) specific protein and that most of these proteins are enzymes that catalyze specific reactions. (Many exceptions to this hypothesis are now known.)
A single cell produced by mitosis or meiosis (not by cell fusion) that is capable of developing into an adult organism without fusing with another cell.
(plural: hyphae) One of the strands of a fungal mycelium (the meshlike body of a fungus). The Neurospora crassa bread mold is a fungus. Hyphae are also found in some protists.
wild type
The most common phenotype seen in a population, especially the most common phenotype in wild populations as compared to inbred lab strains of the same species.
An individual that carries a mutation (any change in the hereditary material of an organism).
Requiring a specific growth substance beyond the minimum required for normal metabolism and reproduction of the parental or wild-type strain.
knock-out mutant
An organism with a mutation that eliminates the function of a specific gene.
genetic screen
A technique for picking certain types of mutants out of many thousands of randomly generated mutants.
Capable of being influenced by hereditary genetic material. A heritable trait is one that can be passed on from one generation to the next.
minimal medium
A culture medium that contains all the nutrients necessary for a wild-type organism to grow.
complete medium
A culture medium that consists of the minimal medium supplemented with all 20 amino acids, additional vitamins, and other organic molecules.
A monomer that can be polymerized to form DNA or RNA.
A triplet in the genetic code that specifies a particular amino acid in a protein or starts or stops protein synthesis.
A sequence of three nucleotides that makes up a codon.
reading frame
The division of a sequence of DNA or RNA into a particular series of three-nucleotide codons.
A virus that infects bacteria.
An agent that tends to increase the frequency or extent of mutations.
deletion mutation
A mutation resulting from the deletion of one or more nucleotides in a gene sequence.
addition mutation
A mutation resulting from the addition of one or more nucleotides in a gene sequence.
Any change in the combination of genes or alleles found on a given chromosome or in a given individual.
double mutant
An allele that has both addition and deletion mutations in the same gene.

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