Glossary of AU Biology 110 Chapter 14

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DNA polymerase
Any of several enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of DNA from deoxyribonucleotides.
dNTP (deoxynucleoside triphosphate)
A monomer that is the essential building block for making a new strand of DNA.
An RNA polymerase that synthesizes a short stretch of RNA that acts as a primer for DNA polymerase.
Parallel but oriented in opposite directions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of hydrogen bonds between nucleotides.
single-strand DNA-binding protein
A protein that binds to the DNA opened by helicase and prevents the strands from closing back together.
An enzyme that cuts and rejoins the DNA downstream of the replication fork in DNA synthesis, removing twists in the strand.
leading strand
The strand of DNA that is synthesized in one continuous piece with nucleotides added to the 3-prime end of the growing molecule.
lagging strand
The strand of DNA that is synthesized discontinuously in a series of short pieces that are later joined together.
replication fork
The Y-shaped site at which a double-stranded molecule of DNA is separated into two single strands for replication.
DNA ligase
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the deoxyribonucleotides synthesized by DNA polymerase.
Okazaki fragment
A short fragment of DNA produced during DNA replication; a piece of the lagging strand.

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