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Glossary of AU Biology 110 Chapter 13

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Punnett square
A grid for predicting the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring from a genetic cross. It consists of rows and columns representing each gamete genotype produced by the parents.
trait
Any characteristic of an individual.
dominant
Predominating over a contrasting allele in its manifestation. A dominant allele determines the phenotype of a heterozygous individual.
homozygous
Having two copies of the same allele.
allele
A particular version of the same gene. For example, the allele for blue eye pigment and the allele for brown eye pigment are two versions of the gene for eye color.
recessive
Being subordinate to a contrasting allele in its manifestation. The influence of a recessive allele on phenotype can be entirely hidden by the presence of another, dominant allele.
gamete
A haploid reproductive cell that can fuse with another haploid cell to form a zygote.
genotype
The entire genetic makeup of an individual. Specifically, the alleles of a particular set of genes under study.
phenotype
The observable characteristics or traits of an individual.
heterozygous
Having two different alleles for the same gene.
gene
The hereditary determinant for a trait.
parental generation
The adults used in an initial experimental genetic cross.
F1 (first filial) generation
The offspring of the parental generation.
F2 (second filial) generation
The offspring of members of an F1 generation.
principle of independent assortment
The tenet proposed by Gregor Mendel that alleles of different genes are transmitted independently of one another. This holds true only for genes that are on different chromosomes.
cross (cross-pollination)
A type of mating in which the pollen from one plant is placed onto the female reproductive organs of another plant.

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