Glossary of AU Biology 110 Chapter 11

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M phase (mitotic phase)
The phase of the cell cycle during which growing cells divide. It includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
A single long molecule of DNA and any associated proteins.
sister chromatid
The paired strands of a recently replicated chromosome that has not yet divided.
The region joining two sister chromatids during mitosis and meiosis.
One of two small cylindrical structures found together near the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. Together they are called the centrosome and serve as a microtubule hub for the cytoskeleton.
The part of the cell cycle during which no cell division occurs. Includes the G1 phase, the S phase, and the G2 phase.
The microtubule-organizing center responsible for mitotic spindle formation, consisting of two centrioles located together near the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. During cell division, it replicates into two daughter centrosomes, each of which organizes one end of the mitotic spindle.
A long tubular polymer of protein subunits that is involved in several types of cell movement and transport of materials within the cell.
The first stage of mitosis, during which chromosomes become visible, the mitotic spindle forms, and the nuclear envelope breaks down.
Nuclear division in eukaryotes producing two daughter nuclei that are genetically identical to the parent.
mitotic spindle
An array of microtubules formed during cell division that moves chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell.
The second stage of mitosis, during which the nuclear envelope disintegrates and spindle fibers from each mitotic spindle attach to one of the two sister chromatids of each chromosome.
nuclear envelope
A complex double membrane that encloses the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
The attachment that forms during cell division between the microtubule of a spindle fiber and a chromosome. It contains motor proteins that move the chromosomes along the microtubule.
motor protein
A protein that converts chemical energy in ATP to mechanical work.
A stage in cell division (mitosis or meiosis) during which chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
One of the daughter strands of a chromosome that has recently been copied (during mitosis or meiosis) and that is still connected to the other daughter strand. Upon separation from each other, the chromatids become chromosomes.
The fourth stage of mitosis, during which sister chromatids separate and chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell.
The fifth and final stage of mitosis, during which a new nuclear envelope forms around each set of daughter chromosomes and the mitotic spindles disintegrate.
The division of the cytoplasm to form two daughter cells.
cell cycle
The sequence of stages that a dividing eukaryotic cell goes through from the time it is created (by division of a parent cell) to the time it undergoes mitosis. Includes M, G1, S, and G2 phases.
S phase
The phase of the cell cycle during which DNA is synthesized and chromosomes are duplicated; the middle part of interphase.
G2 phase
The phase of the cell cycle between DNA synthesis (S phase) and mitosis (M phase); the last part of interphase.
M phase
The phase of the cell cycle during which mitosis occurs; includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
sister chromatids
The paired strands of a recently replicated chromosome that has not yet divided.
cell-cycle checkpoint
A point in the cell cycle that is regulated, and at which the cell cycle can be stopped.
growth factor
A polypeptide or small protein that is secreted by certain cells and that stimulates other cells to divide or to differentiate.
cyclin-dependent kinase
A protein kinase, activated only when bound to a cyclin, that is involved in the control of the cell cycle.
mitosis-promoting factor
A complex of two proteins that causes cells to enter the M phase of the cell cycle.
G1 phase
The phase of the cell cycle that constitutes the first part of interphase before DNA synthesis.

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