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Glossary of AS Level Genes and genetics 1

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Why is DNA Stable?
1)sugar phosphate backbone with strong ester bonds.
2)lots of weak hydrogen bonds
3)double helix
Name the four bases and how do they pair up?
adenine and thymine
cytosine and guanine
Name the 3 components which make up a nucleotide
Phosphate, sugar (pentose) and base
How are the sugar and phosphate bonded?
by ester bonds
By what process is DNA copied?
Semi conservative replication
What enzyme is used to unzip the strands of DNA?
DNA polymerase
How are free nucleotides bound to free DNA?
according to the rules of complimentary base pairing
Why is it important that DNA can be replicated produces identical copies of itself?
essential for evolution and the passing on of genetic information.
What is a chromosome?
a single long molecule of Dna made up of 1000s of genes
What is a Locus and what is an allele?
Locus- position of particular gene on a chromosome
Allele- an alternative form of a gene
What is a gene?
Sections of Dna which code for protein synthesis
What is the role of a gene?
make exact copies of itself, new cells receive exact copy- make reproduction possible
carries genetic code from which essential proteins are made.
How are base pairs bonded?
hydrogen bonds
What strand is used to make proteins?
sense strand

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