Glossary of AS Chemistry Module 3 HALOALKANES
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- Give the general formula for Haloalkanes.
- What is a nucleophile?
- electron pair donor
- Which factor influences the rate of nucleophilic subsitution?
- *strength of C-X bond
- How does nucleophilic substitution work?
- halogens are electronegative.C-X polar bond
electrons attracted to X which becomes slightly negative.
C is susceptible to attack from electrons
c-X bond breaks, X- ion released.
Nucleophile replaces X atom
- What is another name given to the process of the reaction of haloalkanes and hydroxide ions?
- Give the essential conditions for reacting haloalkane and OH ions.
- Warm NAOH or KOH
- what is produced by OH ions and haloalkane?
- Give the essential conditions for reacting haloalkane and cynanides
- KCN is used
- what is produced by cyanides and haloalkanes?
- what are nitriles turned into?
- amides and then carboxylic acids and ammonia
- By which process?
- What is produced when reacting ammonia and haloalkanes?
- primary amines
- What is formed during base elimination?What is used?
- Give 3 factors affecting base elimination
- *structure of haloalkane...primary undergoes substitution, secondary undergoes both simultaneously and tertiary undergoes elimination
*Strength of Base
- Name the conditions that can affect the outcome of the base elimination of secondary haloalkanes.
- *elimination is favoured by hot ethanolic conditions
*substitution is favoured by warm aqueous conditions
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