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Glossary of AS Chemistry Module 3 HALOALKANES

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Give the general formula for Haloalkanes.
CnH2n+1X
x=halogen
What is a nucleophile?
electron pair donor
Which factor influences the rate of nucleophilic subsitution?
*strength of C-X bond
How does nucleophilic substitution work?
halogens are electronegative.C-X polar bond
electrons attracted to X which becomes slightly negative.
C is susceptible to attack from electrons
c-X bond breaks, X- ion released.
Nucleophile replaces X atom
What is another name given to the process of the reaction of haloalkanes and hydroxide ions?
hydrolysis
Give the essential conditions for reacting haloalkane and OH ions.
Warm NAOH or KOH
what is produced by OH ions and haloalkane?
alcohols
Give the essential conditions for reacting haloalkane and cynanides
KCN is used
what is produced by cyanides and haloalkanes?
nitriles
what are nitriles turned into?
amides and then carboxylic acids and ammonia
By which process?
hydrolysis
What is produced when reacting ammonia and haloalkanes?
primary amines
What is formed during base elimination?What is used?
alkenes
OH ions
Give 3 factors affecting base elimination
*structure of haloalkane...primary undergoes substitution, secondary undergoes both simultaneously and tertiary undergoes elimination
*Strength of Base
*Reaction conditions
Name the conditions that can affect the outcome of the base elimination of secondary haloalkanes.
*elimination is favoured by hot ethanolic conditions
*substitution is favoured by warm aqueous conditions

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