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Glossary of ARS Chapter 6 Chromosomes and Cell Production

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autosome
any non-sex chromosome
binary fission
asexual reproduction in which one cell divides into two cells of that have identical DNA
cancer
cells which have mutations of the cell DNA, these mutated cells cause normals to mutate
cell cycle
consists of a cell growth period in which DNA is synthesized and a cell division period in which mitosis takes place
centromere
point where two chromatids are attached
chromatid
two exact copies of DNA that make up the chromosome
chromosome (eukaryotic)
structure in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein
chromosome (prokaryotic)
the main ring of DNA
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm of a cell
diploid
a cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes
gamete
a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
gene
segment of DNA that codes for a pretein or RNA molecule
haploid
when a cell contains one set of chromosomes
homologous chromosome
two chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content
How many chromosomes do humans have
23 pairs or 46 chromosomes
interphase
period between meiotic division during which the cell grows, copies DNA, and synthesizes protein
karyotype
array of chromosomes found in cells at metaphase of mitosis and arragned in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size
mitosis (eukaryotic)
process of cell division that forms two nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
sex chromosome
one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
spindle
network of microtubules that forms during mitosis and moves chromotids to the poles
zygote
cell that results from the fission of gametes, a fertilized egg

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