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Glossary of ARHS exam 1

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Wounded Bison
Ca. 15,000-10,000 BCE
Altamira, Spain

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Lions and Bison
Ca. 30,000-28,000 BCE
End Chamber, Chauvet Cave
Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardeche Gorge, France

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Bear
Ca. 30,000-28,000 BCE
Chauvet Cave
Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardeche Gorge, France

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Long-Eared Owl
Ca. 30,000-28,000 BCE
Chauvet Cave
Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardeche Gorge, France

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Chinese Horse
Ca. 15,000-13,000 BCE
Lascaux Cave
Dordogne, France

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Rhinocerous, Wounded Man, and Bison
Ca. 15,000-13,000 BCE
Lascaux Cave
Dordogne, France

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Spotted Horses and Human Hands
Horses Ca. 16,000 BCE; Hands Ca. 15,000 BCE
Pech-Merle Cave
Dordogne, France

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Overlapping animal engravings
Ca. 40,000-10,000 BCE
Le Trois Freres, France
Rubbing done by Abbe Breuil

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Hall of the Bulls
Ca. 15,000-10,000 BCE
Lascaux Cave
Dordogne, France

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Lowenmensch (Lion-man)
Ca. 40,000-28,000 BCE
Mammoth ivory
Holhenstein-Stadel, Germany

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Horse statue
Ca. 28,000 BCE
Mammoth ivory
Vogelherd Cave
Germany

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Spear thrower with interlocking ibexes
Ca. 16,000 BCE
Reindeer antler
Grotte d' Enlene
Ariege, France

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Two Bison
Ca. 13,000 BCE
Clay
Le Tuc d' Audoubert Cave
Ariege, France

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Dame a la Capuche/Woman from Brassempouy
Ca. 22,000 BCE
Ivory
Grotte du Pape
Brassempouy, France

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Woman/Venus of Willendorf
Ca. 28,000 BCE
Limestone

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Neolithic plastered skull
Ca. 7000 BCE
Jericho, Jordan

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Early Neolithic wall and tower
Ca. 7500 BCE
Jericho, Jordan

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Human figurines
Ca. 6750 BCE
Ain Ghazal, Jordan

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Animal Hunt
Ca. 6000 BCE
Restoration of Main Room
Catal Huyuk, Turkey
Female and Male figures
Ca. 3500 BCE
Ceramic
Cernavoda, Romania
View of town and volcano
Wall painting
Ca. 6000 BCE
Catal Huyuk, Turkey

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Menhir alignments at Menec
Ca. 4250 BCE
Carnac, France

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Stonehenge
Ca. 2100 BCE
Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England

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Babylonian deed of sale
Ca. 1750 BCE
Sumer region, Iraq

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Remains of the White Temple on its ziggurat
Ca. 3500 BCE
Uruk, Iraq

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Female Head
Ca. 3200 BCE
Uruk, Iraq

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Statues from the Abu Temple
Ca. 2700 BCE
Limestone, alabaster, and gypsum
Tell Asmar, Iraq

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Goat in a Thicket/Ram and Tree
Ca. 2600 BCE
Wood, gold, lapus lazuli
Muqaiyir, Iraq

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Royal Standard of Ur
Ca. 2600 BCE
Wood inlaid with shell, limestone, and lapus lazuli
Royal Cemetery of Ur

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Bull Lyre from tomb of Queen Pu-Abi
Ca. 2600 BCE
Wood with gold, lapus lazuli, bitumen, and shell
Muqaiyir, Iraq

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Inlay panel from the soundbox of lyre
Ca. 2600 BCE
Shell and bitumen
Muqaiyir, Iraq
Priest King Feeding Sacred Sheep
Cylinder seal
Ca. 3300 BCE
Marble
Uruk, Iraq

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Head of an Akkadian ruler
Ca. 2250 BCE
Bronze
Nineveh, Iraq

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Stele of Naram-Sin
2254 BCE
Sippar, Akkadia

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Great Ziggurat of King Urnammu
Ca. 2100 BCE
Muqaiyir, Iraq

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Head of Gudea
Ca. 2100 BCE
Diorite
Lagash, Iraq

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Seated statue of Gudea holding temple plan
Ca. 2100 BCE
Diorite
Girsu, Iraq

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Upper part of stele of Law Code of Hammurabi
Ca. 1760 BCE
Diorite
Babylon, Iraq

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Reconstruction drawing of citadel of Sargon II
Ca. 721 BCE
Dur Sharrukin, Iraq

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Gate of the Citadel of Sargon II
742 BCE
Dur Sharrukin, Iraq

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Fugitives Crossing the River
Ca. 883 BCE
Alabaster relief
Palace of Ashurnasirpal, Nimrud, Iraq

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Lion Hunt relief
Ca. 645 BCE
From reign of Ashurnasirpal

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Ishtar Gate
Ca. 575 BCE
Glazed brick
Babylon, Iraq

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The Lion Gate
Ca. 1400 BCE
Bogazkoy, Anatolia

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Ivory plaque depicting a winged sphinx
Phoenecian
Ca. 8th century BCE
Fort Shalmaneser, Nimrud, Iraq

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Painted beaker
Ca. 5000 BCE
Susa

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Rhyton
Achaemenid
5th-3rd centuries BCE
Gold
Tehran, Iran

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Bull capital
Ca. 500 BCE
Persopolis, Iran

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Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes
Ca. 500 BCE
Persopolis, Iran

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Darius and Xerxes Giving Audience
Ca. 490 BCE
Limestone
Tehran, Iran

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Shapur I Triumphing over the Roman Emperors Philip the Arab and Valerian
260 AD
Naksh-I-Rustam, Iraq

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Palace of Shapur I
242 AD
Cresiphon, Iraq

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King Peroz I Hunting Gazelles
457 AD
Silver gilt, engraved, embossed, and inlaid with niello
Ancient Iran

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The Palette of Narmer
Ca. 3150 BCE
Slate
Hierakonpolis

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Imhotep Step Pyramid and Funerary complex of King Djoser
Ca. 2681 BC
3rd Dynasty
Saqqara

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Papyrus-shaped half-columns
North Palace
Funerary Complex of King Djoser
Saqqara

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The Pyramids of:
1) Menkaure (Ca. 2533-2515 BCE)
2) Khafra (Ca. 2570-2544 BCE)
3) Khufu (Ca. 2601-2528 BCE)
Giza

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The Great Sphinx
Ca. 2750 BCE
Sandstone
Giza

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Sculpture of Khafra
Ca. 2500 BCE
Diorite
Giza

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Sculpture of Menkaure and his wife, Queen Khamerernebty II
Ca. 2515 BCE
Slate
Giza

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Sculpture of Prince Rahotep and his wife, Nofret
Ca. 2580 BCE
Painted limestone
Meidum

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Relief Panel of Hesy-ra
Ca. 2660 BCE
Wood
Saqqara

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Sculpture of Seated Scribe
Ca. 2400 BCE
Limestone
Saqqara

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Sculpture of Kha-Aper
Ca. 2450 BCE
Wood
Saqqara

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Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt
Ca. 2510 BCE
Painted limestone relief
Tomb of Ti, Saqqara

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Sculpture of Senworset III
Ca. 1850 BCE
Quartzite
Middle Kingdom, Ancient Egypt

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Sculpture of Lady Sennuwy
Ca. 1920 BCE
Granite
Kerma, Upper Nubia

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Rock-Cut Tombs
11th and 12th Dynasties
Ca. 1950 BC
Beni-Hasan

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Feeding the Oryxes
Ca. 1928 BCE
Tomb of Khnum-hotep
Beni Hasan
Female Figure from Thebes
Faience
12th-13th Dynasties

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Temple of Hatshepsut
Ca. 1478 BCE
Deir-el-Bahri

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Kneeling figure of Hatshepsut
Ca. 1473 BCE
Red Granite
Deir-el-Bahri

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Hypostyle Hall of Amun-Ra
Ca. 1290 BCE
Karnak, Thebes

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Seti I's Campaigns
Ca. 1280 BCE
Sandstone
Sunken relief
Temple of Amun at Karnak, Thebes

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Temple of Ramses II
19th Dyn.
Ca. 1279 BCE
Abu Simbel

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Sculpture of Senenmut with Nefrua
Ca. 1470 BCE
Granite
Thebes

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Musicians and Dancers
1350 BCE
Tomb of Nebamun
Thebes

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Mai and his wife Urel
Ca. 1375 BCE
Limestone relief
Tomb of Ramose, Thebes

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Sculpture of Akhenaten
1353 BCE
Karnak, Thebes

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Akhenaten and his family
Ca. 1355 BCE
Limestone

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Sculpture of Queen Tiy
Ca. 1352 BCE
Yew, ebony, glass, silver, gold, lapus lazuli, cloth, clay, and wax
Kom Medinet el Ghurab

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Sculpture of Queen Nefertiti
Ca. 1348
Limestone
Amarna

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Cover of the coffin of Tutenkhamen
18th Dyn.
Gold

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The Weighing of the Heart and Judgement by Osiris
1285 BCE
Painted papyrus

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"Frying Pan"
Early Cycladic II
Ca. 2500 BCE
Terra cotta
Chalandriani, Syros

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"Cycladic idols"
Ca. 2500 BCE
Marble

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Harpist
2200 BCE
Marble
Amorgos, Cyclades

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Grandstand Fresco
Ca. 1500 BCE
Knossos, Crete

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The Queen's Megaron
Ca. 1700 BCE
Knossos, Crete

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Spring Fresco
Ca. 1600 BCE
Akrotiri, Thera

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Flotilla Fresco
Ca. 1600 BCE
Akrotiri, Thera

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Beaked jug (Kamares ware)
Ca. 1800 BCE
Phaistos

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Octopus Vase
Stirrup jar
Ca. 1500 BCE
Palaikastro, Crete

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Harvester Vase
Ca. 1500 BCE
Steatite
Hagia Triada

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Rhyton in the shape of a bull's head
Ca. 1500 BCE
Serpentine, steatite, crystal, shell inlay
Knossos

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Snake Goddess
Ca. 1650 BCE
Faience
Knossos

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The Toreador Fresco
Ca. 1550 BCE
Knossos

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Corbeled casemate
Ca. 1400 BCE
Tiryns, Greece

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Lion Gate
Ca. 1250 BCE
Mycenae, Greece

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Treasury of Atreus
Ca. 1300 BCE
Mycenae, Greece

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Mask of Agamemnon
Ca. 1600 BCE
Gold
Grave Circle A
Mycenae, Greece

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Inlaid dagger blade
Ca. 1600 BCE
Grave Circle A
Mycenae, Greece

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Vaphio cups
Ca. 1500 BCE
Gold
Sparta

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Three Deities
14th-13th century BCE
Ivory
Mycenae, Greece

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Dipylon Vase
Ca. 750 BCE
by the Dipylon Master
Athens

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Man and Centaur
Ca. 750 BCE
Bronze
Olympia

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The Ajax Painter
Aryballos (perfume jar)
690 BCE
Ceramic

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Geometric tripod cauldron
8th century
Bronze
Olympia

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Griffin head protome from bronze tripod cauldron
Ca. 650 BCE
Cast bronze
Kameiros,Rhodes

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Kore (Maiden)
Ca. 630 BCE
Limestone
Crete
Similar to Egyptian sculpture in proportion and technique, but can stand on its own and is more stylized in facial features
-women clothed but men not

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Kouros (Youth)
Ca. 600 BCE
Marble

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Kouros from Anavysos
540 BC
Marble
shows Archaic smile
-more naturalistic than earlier Kouros

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Peplos Kore
530 BC
Marble
Athens

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Kore
520 BC
Marble
Chios
Shows variety of different types of kouros, kore
West pediment of Temple of Artemis
600 BC
Limestone
Corfu
high relief, bodies so strongly undercut that they appear detached from the architectural background
-shows two moments from a single story==>synoptic narrative

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Battle of the Gods and Giants
from Treasury of the Siphnians
530 BC
Marble
Delphi
Ionic order sculpture, fills freize from top to bottom, figures in a variety of poses, more naturalistic motion

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Dying Warrior from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia
500 BC
Marble

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Dying Warrior from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia
480 BC
Marble
Shows more naturalistic treatment of subject than dying soldier from west pediment

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Achilles and Ajax playing dice
by Exekias
540 BC
Black-figure amphora

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Dancing Revelers
by Euthymides
510 BC
Red-figure amphora

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Eos and Memnon
by the Douris painter
490 BC
Interior of an Attic red-figured kylis

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Kritios boy
480 BC
Marble
Classical age sculpture, shows contrapposto, marked new treatment of flesh and muscle in sculpture, and exploration of movement
-no Archaic smile

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Charioteer
450 BC
Marble
Motya, Sicily

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Zeus or Poseidon
460 BC
Bronze
Athens
Made in indirect lost-wax process

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Diskobolos
by Myron
450 BC
Roman marble copy of bronze original

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Doryphoros
by Polykleitos
450 BC
Marble
Roman copy of Greek original

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Riace warrior A
450 BC
Bronze
Riace, Italy

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Battle of the Centaurs and Lapiths
-from west pediment of Temple of Zeus at Olympia
460 BC
Marble
-shows a variety of different poses
-uses mythology as an analogy for real events

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Atlas bringing Herakles the Apples of Hesperides
460 BC
Marble
Olympia
typical of Classical period in that faces are thoughful, doughy in shape
-explores pictorial and dramatic possibilities

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Akropolis
Propylaea=437 BC
Temple of Athena Nike=427 BC
-site of religious and historical significance

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Parthenon
by Iktinos and Kallikrates
447-432 BC
Akropolis, Athens
-example of Doric architecture, but Ionic elements also present
-dominant temple on the Akropolis
-sophisticated for the Classical period--parts fully integrated, sculpture and architecture blend together

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Athena Parthenos
by Pheidas
438 BC
the Parthenon, Athens

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Dionysos
East pediment of the Parthenon
438 BC
Marble
Athens

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Three Goddesses
East Pediment of the Parthenon
438 BC
Athens
-shows wet drapery style

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Lapith and Centaur
Metope from south side of Parthenon
440 BC
Marble
Athens

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Horsemen
west frieze of Parthenon
440 BC
Marble
Athens

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Nike
from the Temple of Athena Nike
410 BC
Marble
Athens
-example of Pheidian style
-idealized face and proportions
-elevated above world of mortals
-calm yet aloof expression
-wet drapery style garments

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Grave Stele of Hegeso
410 BC
Marble
Athens
Pheidian style, domestic scene

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Temple of Athena Nike
421 BC
Akropolis, Athens

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The Erechtheion
421 BC
the Akropolis, Athens
Akropolis buildings
Parthenon and Propylea=Doric
Temple of Athena Nike and Erechtheion=Ionic
Changes in architecture during the Late Classical period in Greek art
-late 4th and 5th centuries BC
-shift away from temples to other building types in grand form e.g. theaters, tombs
-development of the Corinthian capital (late 5th cent. BC)
Ex)
-Theatre at Epidauros (3rd-2nd cent. BC)
-Mausoleum at Halikarnassos (359 BC)

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Head of Herakles or Telephos
340 BC
Marble
Tegea

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Aphrodite of Knidos
by Praxiteles
340 BC
Marble
Roman Copy of Greek original

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Hermes
by Praxiteles
320 BC
Marble
Roman copy of Greek original
Olympia

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Apoxyomenos
by Lysippos
330 BC
Marble copy of bronze original

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Red-figured calyx krater
by the Niobid painter
460 BC
Orvieto

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White-ground lekthyos
by the Reed painter
425 BC

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Apoxyomenos
by Lysippos
330 BC
Marble copy of bronze original

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the Azara herm
by Lysippos
late 4th century BC
Marble
Roman copy of Greek original
-shows shift from generic to individualistic features in Hellenistic period
-example of portraiture
-passionate gaze=example of heightened drama, viewer involvement

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Portrait head
80 BC
Bronze
Delos
-one of the few remaining original Greek portrait heads

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Dying trumpeter
by Epigonos of Pergamon
230 BC
Roman copy of bronze original
Pergamon, Turkey
-very emotional statue
-glorifies Gallic enemy in order to glorify, in turn, the victory over him
-shows influence of other cultures on Greek world

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Athena and Alkyoneus
on the Great Frieze of the Great Altar of Zues
166 BC
Marble
Pergamon, Turkey
-shows emotional,dramatic style of sculpture in the Hellenistic period
-uses mythology as allegory for real life (in this case the exploits of Eumenes)

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Nike of Samothrace
by Pythokritos of Rhodes
190 BC
Marble

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Aphrodite, Pan, and Eros
100 BC
Marble
-example of rococo style=lighthearted, fairly erotic

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Drunken Old Woman
3rd cent or late 2nd cent BC
Marble
Roman copy of Greek original

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Apollo Belvedere
late 4th century BC
Marble
Roman copy of Greek original

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The Abduction of Persephone
340 BC
Detail of a wall painting in a tomb in Macedonia
-dramatic, shows shading and spatial perspective

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The Battle of Issos
100 BC
Mosaic copy from Pompeii of a Hellenistic painting
-follows four-color scheme of Greek painting (red, yellow, black, and white)
Periods in Greek art
Geometric
Orientalizing
Archaic
Classical
Late Classical
Hellenistic

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Fibula
670 BC
Gold
Regolini-Galassi Tomb
Cerveteri

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Tomb of the Reliefs
3rd cent. BC
Cerveteri, Italy

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Tomb of Hunting and Fishing
520 BC
Tarquina, Italy

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Tomb of the Reliefs
3rd cent. BC
Cerveteri, Italy

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Tomb of the Triclinium
470 BC
Tarquinia, Italy

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Tomb of Orcus
350 BC
Tarquinia, Italy

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Human-headed cinerary urn
675 BC
Terra cotta
Chiusi, Italy

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Sarcophagus
520 BC
Terra cotta
Cerveteri
Youth and Female Demon
Cinerary urn
Early 4th cent BC
Stone
Sarcophagus of Larth Tetnies and Thanchvil Tarnai
350 BC
Marble

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Porta Marzia
2nd cent. BC
Perugia, Italy

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Apollo from Veii
510 BC
Terra Cotta

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She-Wolf
500 BC
Bronze
Rome

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Portrait of a boy
Early 3rd cent. BC
Bronze
Florence

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L'Arringatore
Early 1st cent. BC
Bronze
Lake Trasimene

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Engraved back of mirror
400 BC
Bronze

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Laocoon Group
1st century AD
Marble

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Theater Complex of Pompey
55 BC
Rome

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Statue base of Marcus Antonius
1st cent. BC
Marble

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Brutus
4th-3rd cent. BC
Bronze

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Pompey
50 BC
Licinian Tomb, Rome
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Pantheon
125 AD
Rome

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Portrait of Vespasian
75 AD
Marble

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Portrait of Hadrian
117 AD
Marble

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Portrait of Domitia Longina
Late 1st cent. AD
Marble

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Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius
180 AD
Bronze

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Portrait of Faustina the Younger
148 AD
Marble

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Ara Pacis Augustae
13 BC
Marble

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Imperial Procession, Ara Pacis Augustae
13 BC
Marble

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Arch of Titus
81 AD
Marble
Rome

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Arch of Titus, procession of spoils from temple in Jerusalem
81 AD
Marble
Rome

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Column of Trajan
113 AD
Marble
Rome

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Apotheosis relief, base of column of Antoninus Pius and Faustina
161 AD
Marble
Rome

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Decursio relief, base of column of Antoninus Pius and Faustina
161 AD
Marble
Rome

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Funerary relief of a butcher and a woman
2nd century AD
Marble
Dresden

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Colosseum
80 AD
Rome

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Colosseum
80 AD
Rome

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Funerary relief of Tibnan
150 AD
Painted limestone
Syria

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Portrait of a Woman
110 AD
Encaustic on wooden panel
Hawara in the Fayum, Lower Egypt

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Portrait group of the Tetrarchs
305 AD
Porphyry

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Portrait of Constantine the Great
4th cent. AD
Marble

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Meleager Sarcophagus
180 AD
Marble
Rome

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Arch of Constantine
312 AD
Rome

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Painted ceiling
4th century
Catacomb of Santissimi Pietro e Marcellino
Rome

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Sarcophagus
270 AD
Marble
Santa Maria Antiqua, Rome

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Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
450 AD
Ravenna

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Interior, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
450 AD
Ravenna

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Good Shepherd
Mosaic
450 AD
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
Ravenna

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Orthodox Baptistery
400 AD
Ravenna

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Dome Mosaics
Orthodox Baptistery
458 AD
Ravenna

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Interior, Santa Maria Maggiore
440 AD
Rome

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Triumphal arch
Mosaic
440 AD
Santa Maria Maggiore
Rome

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The Parting of Lot and Abraham
440 AD
Mosaic
Santa Maria Maggiore
Rome

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Scenes from the Book of Kings, Quedlinburg Itala
450 AD
Tempera on vellum
Berlin

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Miniature from the Vatican Vergil
Early 5th century
Tempera on vellum
Rome

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Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
359 AD
Marble
Rome

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San Vitale, interior
526 AD
Ravenna

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Emperor Justinian and his attendants
547 AD
Mosaic
San Vitale, Ravenna

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Empress Theodora and her attendants
547 AD
Mosaic
San Vitale, Ravenna

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Exterior, Hagia Sophia
532 AD
Istanbul

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Interior, Hagia Sophia
532 AD
Istanbul

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Christ Enthroned
from the Godescalc Gospels
781 AD
Tempera on vellum
Paris
Saint Matthew
from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne
800 AD
Ink and colors on vellum
Vienna

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Portrait of Menander
70 AD
Wall painting
Pompeii

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Saint Matthew
from the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims
816 AD
Ink and colors on vellum
Epernay

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Illustrations to Psalms 43 and 44
from the Utrecht Psalter
820 AD
Ink on vellum
Utrecht, the Netherlands

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Illustrations to Psalms 43 and 44
from the Utrecht Psalter
820 AD
Ink on vellum
Utrecht, the Netherlands

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Front cover of the Lindau Gospels
870 AD
Gold and Jewels
New York

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