Glossary of ARCH 3005

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Cave paintings of animals
Lascaux (means "into the earth"), France
Carved frieze of animals
Le Cap Blanc, France
Carved relief with aurochs
Bourdailles, France
Venus of Willendorf
Austrian- large figure, faceless, common features, large wombe; relates to fertility and surplus
Venus of Lespugue
Dordogne, France
ivory, covered in sut
large figured, faceless
Venus of Laussel
Dordogne, France
-relief carving
-one hand rested on womb
-other hand holds horn (symbol of fertility and renewal)
-horns regrow on animals (symbolizing renewal)
Menhirs at Carnac, Normandy
-Scottish for "tall stone"
-prevalence to the sky, vertical orientation
-human like character
-stand straight up, connecting us to the sky.
Carnac chamber tomb (dolmen)
-burial pits that are dug and filled with a body and capped by standing stones
-took an entire village to make some capstones.
Stonehenge- Salisbury Plain, England
-used as religous site for 2000 years
-deals with the idea of time
-circles (symbolize completeness)
-Hirophony = hierarchy+euphony
-connects to the solar patterns as well as human patters
Megalith ("great stone")
large upright stones placd in groups
Catal Hyuck
-Asia Minor (Turkey)
-one of the first villages
-clustered rectolinear cells
Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu
-a large mound with an active temple on top
-enclosed, protected
-public open space
White Temple
-built from Adobe- Stiations-ceramic cones
-Temple was raised on a mound
-clearly rectangular, symmetrical
-limitations to building out of mud:
-walls had to be thick, timbers had to be found
The city of Erbil
-built on artificial mound called "tell"
-There is a wall that has a protective character from invasion as well as the chaos from nature
The city of Ur
-difference of the natural environment and the everyday buildings and monumental
-house consists of rooms facing courtyard
-no overall structural plan or organization.
Temple of Mardux ("Tower of Babel") City of Babylon
-large structured city-one of the largest in the Mesopotamia area
-survived because they learned to irrigate
-Palace complex
Characteristics of structured cities
1. more densely populated
2. Division of Labor
3. Concentration on surplus
4. Monumental Architecture
5. Religous order
6. Written language
7. Artistic ability
8. organized society
bowing of column
gateway to sanctuary
temple structure (plan)
stairs around Greek temple
Habsed court
room filled with necessities of Pharaoh
Zoser's Funerary Complex and Step Pyramid
-Imhotep was architect-1st in history
-based off of mastabas
Temple of Amon
-has a ritualized crossing of thresholds along an axis
-goes from more common to more sacred gradually
Hypostyle Hall of Seti I and Ramesses II
Hatshepsut's Mortuary Temple
-among cliffs
-series of teraces and ramps
-axial approach (linear)
-near river
Palace of Knossos
-first free standing columns in western architecture
-bull was major part of rituals
Paleolithic period
-"old stone age""
-gathering and food people who were nomadic (moved around)
-food gatherers
Neolithis period
"new stone age"
-food producing (crops) people who were stationary
how do the pyramids at Teotihuacan in Mexico differ from those at Giza in Egypt?
-I Teotihuacan, the pyramids mimic the world around them
- At Giza, the pyramids are meant to stand out and hover over the land.
The word "mesopotamia" means
land between the rivers

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