Glossary of AP World History CHAPTER 1
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- Prehistory vs. history
- Prehistory is considered the time in history when there were no written documents, while history is all the time after.
- Features of civilization
- Specialization, technological advancement, complex political institutions, functionally distant, religious center, writing, monumental architecture, social stratification
- Stages of hominid development
- *Pre-neandrethal man
*Neadrethal man, who lived from around 800,000 to 200,000 years BCE
*Homo Sapiens, modern human who have lived from 200,000 to present
- "Out of Africa" thesis vs. multiregional thesis
- The Out of Africa thesis states that mankind originated there and spread elsewhere, while the multiregional thesis states that mankind developed in separate regions of the world.
- Paleolithic Era
- 2,000,000 to 10,000 BCE. As it got closer and closer to the 10,000 years ago range, simple stone tools and cave art emerged.
- Neolithic Era
- Ranging from around 10,000 years ago to 2,000 BCE. During this time period, metal working and domestication of animals emerged and became more and more prevelant.
- foraging societies
- The way nearly everyone lived prior to 10000 BCE. They had a dependence on their environment as they just collected what was around them and consumed it. No advanced concept of settlement or supply storage.
- Ice Age
- A significantly long period of time from around 100,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE where there was a large amount of cooling in the world.
- A complex society (group of people) with some or all of the features of civilization, like technilogical advancement and social stratification(all listed in features of a civilization)
- Neolithic Revolution
- first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture which arose in various locations. Applies to the general time period over which these initial developments took place and the changes to Neolithic human societies which either resulted in/are associated with the adoption of early farming techniques and crop cultivation.
- Oracle bone script
- A type of divination where a religious figure would examine the shape in/of bones used in China. The bones were often put into wet clay to make it simpler to understand.
- Aryan invasion
- The idea that Indo-Aryan speakers migrated to northern India and interacted with the remaining people of the Indus Valley civilization, possibly leading to form the Vedic civilization
- nomadic pastoralism
- Horseback herders mostly centered in Eurasian Steppes. Migrated according to what is around them, as in the case of climate change or hostile neighbors.
- Patrilineal is the system in which the father is the head of the household and is the main provider. There is often inheritence of property along the male line.
Patrilocal refers to how married couples would live in proximity to the husbands family.
- looking at the world through the perspective of your own culture, where one thinks his or her nation and ideology is the center of everything.
- sedentary agriculture
- planting and farming in a civilization that is settled. this started when people began staying still and allowed for agriculture to advance significantly.
- shifting cultivation
- The act of working land by either harvesting it or deforesting it until it is void and has to be abandoned, only to do this to another piece of land. This was practiced by primitive tribes, as they didn't understand the consequences of their actions.
- slash-and-burn agriculture
- An area of primary or secondary forest is selected, and the plantlife is cut and allowed to dry. Large trees are often stripped and allowed to die standing. Portions of the cut timber is often gathered for firewood or to make charcoal. After some period of time (a week to a few months) the residual dry plantlife is burned. Plots are cultivated for one to five years then ditched weeds invade and it loses fertility.
- A family system where it centers on the mother and the power of the mother. An example is in Judaism where it is claimed that one must be the child of a Jewish mother.
- cultural diffusion
- Cultures and aspects of cultures start at a center and slowly spread out to other groups of people. These cultures/aspects then become more and more readily adopted.
- independent invention
- The theory that some inventions arose in separate regions of their own, instead of being invented because of influence from other areas or being spread from diffusion.
- specialization of labor
- People doing what they do best as their occupation and trading their good in exchangee for money or another good provided by another specialist.
- fertile crescent
- The area where Mesopotamia started between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern day Iraq where the land was particularly fertile. As the land was so lush and productive, mankind more readily advanced. This is often believed as a starting place of civilization
- A Sumarian king accredited in mythology to have demigod status and to have superhuman strength
- Hammurabi's Law Code
- Often referred to as the first set of laws and was created by the Babylonian king Hammurabi. Had emphasis on a patrilineal view.
- Egyptian Book of the Dead
- A compilation of ancient Egyptian religious literature that help anthropologists and historians learn about the Egyptians view on afterlife, the world, and other aspects of life.
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