Glossary of AP US Terms Chapter 7
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- origins of the cabinet
- The Constitution only briefly mentioned the executive department and its powers- basically it required senate approval of presidential nominees to head these bureaus and made all executive officers liable to be impeached. Congress was free to establish the organization of the Cabinet; the first cabinet consisted of four departments, headed by the secretaries of state, treasury, and war and also by the attorney general. A president could dismiss a cabinet officer without senate approval. President appointed them and the Senate approved nominees.
- Washington's Conduct as President
- he was very conservative in his policies- he offered few laws to congress, never criticized opponents of government policy, and only vetoed two measures in his eight year tenure. He balanced his cabinet with northerners and southerners to please the public and show his fairness. He didn't want to create waves and just made sure that everything was okay.
- Judiciary Act of 1789
- The Judiciary Act of 1789 created a system of federal courts that lie under a Supreme Court. This compromise respected state traditions while offering a wide access to federal justice.
- Bill of Rights
- A strong movement came underway for a Bill of Rights because of the public fear that a strong central government would lead to tyranny- antifederalists thought that the best safeguard against tyranny would be to strengthen the powers of the state governments.. some simply wanted basic personal liberties. James Madison (in the House of Representatives)played big role in drafting the Bill of Rights when ratified in 1791
1- freedom, 2- bear arms, 3- freedom from standing armies and forced quartering, 4- freedom of privacy against searches, 5- nothin special, 6- speedy trial get a lawyer no matter what , 8- no cruel or unusual punishment, 10- powers not delegated to USA by constitution are reserved to the States
- 1st Amendment
- The first amendment safeguarded the right to religion, speech, press, and political activity.
- 9th and 10th Amendments
- The 9th and 10th amendments reserved to the people or to the state powers not allocated to the federal government.
- Chisolm vs. Georgia
- In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that a nonresident could sue a state in federal court; however, this was later overturned in the 11th amendment.
- 11th Amendment
- In 1794, Congress decided taht the Chisolm case had encroached too far on states' authority and overturned the decision through a constituional amendment. Ratified in 1798, the eleventh amendment said that private citizens could not undermine states' financial autonomy by using federal courts to sue another state's government in civil cases and claim money from that state's treasury.
- Alexander Hamilton
- relationship with G-Dub
- goals for the nation
- views on human nature
- In the Continental Army, Hamilton distinguished himself in battle and developed a close relationship with Washington.
Hamilton's financial policies had two goals- to strengthen the nation against foreign enemies and to lessen the threat of disunion. He emphasized self-suffiency; hamilton thought ath teh union might disintegrate because he believed that Americans tended to think first of local loyalties and interests (he was very nationalistic).
He belkieved that the public would never display the degree of self-sacrifice and virtue that he had shown.
- Report on the Public Credit
- - Congress tells treasury dept to evaluate Revolutionary debt.
- Hamilton devises policies to strengthen nation's credit, enabling it to defer paying its debt and entice the upper class to place its capital at the nation's service- we have 54 mil in debt
- Hamilton says fed gov should fund the national debt by raising 54 mil in securities- purchasers could choose from stock and western lands. also retain original bonds with 4% interest
- Creditors would like this because their investments would become more valuable
- Hamilton says to use this with state debts as well- also says to pay off Duropeans by selling fed lands in the west.
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