Glossary of AP US History Chapter 5
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- A United States political party consisting of the more respectable citizens of the time; Federalists lived along the eastern seaboard in the 1790's; believed in advocating a strong federal government and fought for the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1787-1788.
- electoral college
- The Electoral College is a group of electors that are elected by the people to elect the President of the United States in every election year. This system was born along side the U.S. Constitution. This system is a way of speeding up Presidential elections and is still in force today. The representatives of each state must reflect the interests of the people within their respective states during each election. After the people in a state have voted, the votes are tallied. Whichever candidate has the most votes gets all of that state's votes in the Electoral College. That states votes is determined by its population.
- Three fifth's Compromise
- The three-fifths compromise was where a black slave was counted as three-fifths of a person when they were counting the population. The southern states wanted them counted as one whole person for more representatives in the House of Representatives. The northern states did not want them counted at all.
- anti federalists
- People against federalists in 1787; disagreed with the Constitution because they believed people's rights were being taken away without a Bill of Rights; also did not agree with annual elections and the non-existence of God in the government.
- The Federalist Papers
- The Federalist was a series of articles written in New York newspapers as a source of propaganda for a stronger central government. The articles, written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, were a way for the writers to express their belief that it is better to have a stronger central government. The papers turned out to be a penetrating commentary written on the Constitution.
- James Madison
- Nicknamed "the Father of the Constitution"; talented politician sent to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787; his notable contributions to the Constitution helped to convince the public to ratify it.
- Alexander Hamilton
- Great political leader; youngest and brightest of Federalists; "father of the National Debt"; from New York; became a major general; military genius; Secretary of Treasury; lived from 1755-1804; became Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington in 1789; established plan for economy that went in to affect in 1790 including a tariff that passed in 1789, the assupmtion of state debts which went into affect in 1790, an excise on different products (including whiskey) in 1791, and a plan for a national bank which was approved in 1791; plan to take care of the national debt--a. fund debt at face value, b. assumption of state debts, c. creation of National Bank, D. taxes (tariffs and excises)--plan was a success in dealing with the national debt; founded the Federalist Party.
- excise taxes
- a tax on the manufacturing of an item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers.This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.
- whiskey rebellion
- A small rebellion, that began in Southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 that was a challenge to the National Governments unjust use of an excise tax on an "economic medium of exchange". Washington crushed the rebellion with excessive force, proving the strength of the national governments power in its military, but was condemned for using a "sledge hammer to crush a gnat."
- "Citizen" Edmond Genet
- He was a represenative of the French Republic who came to America in order to recruit Americans to help fight in the French Revolution. 2. He landed in Charleston SC around 1793 after the outbreak of war between France and Britian. 3. The actions of Citizen Genet the new government was exposed as being vaunerable. It also showed how the government was maturing.
- John Adams
- A Federalist who was Vice President under Washington in 1789, and later became President by three votes in 1796. Known for his quarrel with France, and was involved in the xyz Affair, Quais War, and the Convention of 1800. Later though he was also known for his belated push for peace w/ France in 1800. Regarding his personality he was a "respectful irritation".
- Jay Treaty 1794
- a treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S. and greatly disturbed the Jeffersonians. Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. The British, however, would not promise to leave American ships alone in the future, and they decided that the Americans still owed British merchants for pre-Revolutionary war debts. Because of this, many Southerners especially, were angry and rioted and called John Jay the "Damn'd Archtraitor." (176)
- Pickney Treaty 1795
- Gave America what they demanded from the Spanish. Free navigation of the Mississippi, large area of north Florida. (helped America to have unexpected diplomatic sucess) Jay Treaty- helped prompt the Spanish to deal with the port of New Oleans.
- Battle of Fallen Timbers
- An attack made by American General "Mad Anthony Wayne" against invading Indians from the northwest. The defeat of the Indians ended the alliance made with the British and Indians
- Alien and Sedition Acts
- Contains four parts: 1. Raised the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years. 2. Alien Act-gave the President the power in peacetime to order any alien out of the country. 3. Alien Enemies Act-permitted the President in wartime to jail aliens when he wanted to.-No arrests made under the Alien Act or the Alien Enemies Act. 4. The Sedition Act-key clause provided fines and jail penalties for anyone guilty of sedition. Was to remain in effect until the next Presidential inauguration. The Sedition Act's purpose was to silence Republican opposition to Adam's administration. Many people were fined and jailed under the Sedition Act. Jefferson and Madison believed the acts were violations of the First Amendment. Expired March 1801.
- Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
- The Virginia and kentucky Resolutions were put into practice in 1798 by Jefferson and James Madison. These resolutions were secretly made to get the rights back taken away by the Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws took away freedom of speech and press guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. These resolutions also brought about the later compact theory which gave the states more power than the federal government.
- Checks and Balances
- Checks and Balances "is the principle of government under which separate branches are employed to prevent actions by the other branches and are induced to share power." The framers of the constitution for the U.S. saw the policy of checks and balances necessary for the government to run smoothly. Third principle has prevented anyone Branch from taking over the government and making all the decisions.(Having a dictatorship.)
- Great Compromise
- 1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
- Virginia Plan
- It was the plan purposed by Virginia to set up a bi-cameral congress based on population, giving the larger states an advantage. It was first written as a framework for the constitution.
- Annapolis Convention
- A group of delegates from five states met in Annapolis, Maryland in 1786, in an effort to solve the problems of interstate commerce. Because there was little representation, the delegates decided that a convention of all states should be held the year after in order to amend the Articles of Confederation.
- New Jersey Plan
- The New Jersey Plan, introduced by William Patterson, called for a legislature with equal representation and increased powers for the national government.
- slave trade
- Although the word "slavery" was not used in the Constitution, the idea surfaces in three places in the Constitution: the three-fifths clause, which lessened the power of the voting south by making the votes of three slaves equal that of five white votes; the Fugitive Slave Law, which captured and returned runaway slaves who fled into free territories, and lastly Congress’ option to ban the slave trade in Washington D. C. after 1808.
- Henry Knox
- Henry Knox was the Secretary of War from 1789-1794, the first one under the United States Constitution. Prior to this, he fought in major Revolutionary battles, was in command of the West Point fortress in New York, and was the Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation.
- Judiciary Act 1789
- The Congress passed the Judiciary Act in 1789, in an effort to create a federal-court system and replace the old system, in which the courts varied from state to state. They were burdened with filling in the holes of the judiciary system left by the Constitution.
- Edmund Randolph
- Edmund Jennings Randolph was the Attorney General under the Washington Administration from 1789-1794; before which he was the head of the Virginia delegation at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and submitted the Virginia Plan.
- national bank
- Chartered by the newly formed federal government, the bank was established in Philadelphia in 1791, and was permitted by the government to issue legal tender bank notes that could be exchanged for gold. The bank successfully established a national currency, but the charter ended in 1811, for economic and political reasons.
- French Revolution
- The revolution was a period consisting of social and political upheaval from 1789-1799. Caused by the inability of the ruling class and clergy to solve the states problems, the hunger of the workers, the taxation of the poor, and the American Revolution, it led to the establishment of the First Republic and the end of the monarchy.
- A revenue raising tariff enacted by Congress, it encouraged the people of the U.S. to manufacture earthenware, glass, and other products in their home in order to avoid importation. With a duty of 8.5%, the tariff succeeded in raising much needed funds for Congress
- Proclamation of Neutrality 1793
- Issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, the Neutrality Proclamation stated that the United States would remain a neutral faction in the war with France against Britain and Spain despite heavy French pressures to join their forces. Many Americans felt the war to be a violation of their neutrality.
- XYZ Affair
- When a commission was sent to France in 1797 in order to negotiate problems between the two countries, they were told by the French foreign minister Talleyrand that the agents X, Y, Z, three officials who did not take the process seriously, would only negotiate for a lend of $10 million to the French government.
- federalist era
- The Federalist party was the starting point of the movement to draft and later ratify the new Constitution. It urged for a stronger national government to take shape after 1781. Its leaders included Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, and George Washington rose to power between 1789-1801. Under Hamilton, the Federalists solved the problem of revolutionary debt, created Jay’s Treaty and also the Alien and Sedition Acts.
- Democratic-Republican Party
- The first political party in the United States, the Democratic-Republican party was created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in opposition to the views of Alexander Hamilton. It arose to power in the 1790s and opposed the Federalist party, while advocating states rights and an agricultural society. The party expressed sympathy towards the French Revolution but opposed close ties with the British.
- fled into free territories, and lastly Congress’ option to ban the slave trade in Washington D. C. after 1808.
procedures for amendments: To amend the Constitution, a bill must first be proposed by either two-thirds of both houses or each state conventions. For the amendment to be ratified, three-fourths have to approve the bill. In order to protect the United States and its citizens, this process made it difficult to alter the Constitution without valid reason.
- national debt
- National debt accumulated by the US during the Revolutionary war continued to plague Americans. The states were also in debt after borrowing heavily from the government. Hamilton, in his Report on Public Credit, wanted to pay off foreign debt immediately and then through tariffs repay the national debt.
- Washington's Farewell Address
- In his realization of the important role that he had take in developing the role of the president of the United States, Washington’s farewell address asked the citizens of the United States to avoid involvement in political problems between foreign nations.
- Constitutional Convention
- Constitutional Convention met in 1787. James Madison did most of actual drafting of Constitution. Constitution ratified by last two states in 1789 after Washington elected President. Antifederalists opposed ratification primarily because they feared too much government control. The Bill of Rights was added
to the Constitution to mollify their fears.
- Mt. Vernon Conference
- This name was applied to a meeting between Maryland and Virginia statesmen at George Washington's Mount Vernon Plantation. Originally scheduled to meet at Alexandria to discuss free navigation of the Potomac and Pocomoke Rivers, the delegates ended up resolving far broader issues of trade and mutual policy between the two states
- framers of Constitution
- The 55 men at the convention are called the "Founding Fathers" of the USA, and are also known as the "Framers of the Constitution." Some of the more famous of the framers are George Washington (the first President of the USA), James Madison (the fourth President of the USA), Benjamin Franklin, and Alexander Hamilton.
- Governeur Morris
- was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. He is widely credited as the author of that document's Preamble: "We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union...".
Morris is regarded as a visionary of the idea of being "American". In an era when most Americans thought of themselves as citizens of their respective states, Morris expounded the idea of being a citizen of a single union of states
- John Dickinson
- American lawyer and politician from Jones Neck in St. Jones Hundred, Kent County, Delaware; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. He was an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution, a Continental Congressman from Pennsylvania, a Continental Congressman from Delaware, a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, President of Delaware, and President of Pennsylvania, and for a time, a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. wrote letters from a farmer in PA
- Connecticut Plan
- later known as the Great Compromise, was struck in the creation of legislative bodies. It joined the Virginia Plan, which favored representation based on population, and the New Jersey Plan, which featured each state being equal. Roger Sherman, from Connecticut, played a large role in constructing the compromise.
- Public Land Act 1796
- Public Land Act authorizes Federal land sales to the public in minimum 640-acre plots at $1 per acre of credit.
- two-term tradition
- established by George Washington who only served for two terms
- House of Representatives
- Each state is represented in the House proportionally to its population, and is entitled to at least one Representative. The total number of Representatives is currently fixed at 435 by the Reapportionment Act of 1929, though Congress has the authority to change that number. Each Representative serves for a two-year term and may be re-elected an unlimited number of times. The presiding officer of the House is known as the Speaker, and is elected by the members.
- In the Senate, each state is equally represented by two members; as a result, the total membership of the body is currently 100. Senators serve for six-year terms that are staggered so elections are held for approximately one-third of the seats (a "class") every second year.
- Bill of Rights
- ten amendments to the United States Constitution. These amendments explicitly limit the Federal government's powers, protecting the rights of the people by preventing Congress from abridging freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of religious worship, and the right to bear arms, preventing unreasonable search and seizure, cruel and unusual punishment, and self-incrimination, and guaranteeing due process of law and a speedy public trial with an impartial jury. In addition, the Bill of Rights states that "the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people," and reserves all powers not granted to the Federal government to the citizenry or States. These amendments came into effect on December 15, 1791, when ratified by three-fourths of the States.
- legislative branch
- legislature is considered a power branch which is equal to, and independent of, the executive. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise taxes and adopt the budget and other money bills. The consent of the legislature is also often required to ratify treaties and declare war.
- It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives has 435 members, each representing a congressional district and serving a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population. Each state has two Senators, regardless of population. There are 100 senators, serving staggered six-year terms. Both Senators and Representatives are chosen through direct election.
- Executive Departments; Cabinet
- are among the oldest primary units of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States—the Departments of State, War, and the Treasury all being established within a few weeks of each other in 1789. they have, by statutory specification, constituted a line of succession,
- federal court
- court established by the federal government and having jurisdiction over questions of federal la
- Supreme Court
- highest court of the United States, established by Article 3 of the Constitution of the United States.
- Revolution of 1800
- was a realigning election in which Thomas Jefferson and his running-mate Aaron Burr defeated incumbent President John Adams. The election ushered in a generation of (Democratic) Republican rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party. It is therefore considered the pivotal election of the First Party System.
- Political Parties
- Federalists Favored strong central government.
Republicans Emphasized states' rights.
Democrats The party of tradition.
Whigs The party of modernization.
- infant industries
- Infant industries are by definition those that are not strong enough to survive open competition — they are dependent on government largesse and protectionism in order to survive. At a given point in time, protectionist policy, along with inefficient industries leads to higher prices and lower quality goods for the consumer than if the good or service produced by the industry was produced on the international market.
- permanent alliances
- The first president counseled that it should be "our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world
- Commercial Compromise
- Commercial Compromise; Congress could regulate commerce and could put a tax on foreign imports but not exports
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