Glossary of AP US
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- Repeal of the Townshend Acts
- 1770 - Prime Minister Lord North repealed the Townshend Acts
- KING WILLIAMS' WAR
- 1689-1697 WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF AUSBURG BRITAIN VS FRANCE OVER CONTROL OF EUROPE
AMERICAN BATTLE-1690 N.E VS QUEBEC UNDER SIR WILLIAM PHELPS
TREATY OF RYSWICK 1697
- QUEEN ANNE'S WAR
- 1702-1713 WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION BRITAIN VS FRANCE
AMERICAN BATTLE- DEERFIELD 1704
TREATY OF UTRECHT
- KING GEORGE'S WAR
- 1743-1748 WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
BRITAIN VS FRANCE
THE LOUISBOURG CONFLICT
- FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
- SEVEN YEARS' WAR 1756-1763
BRITAIN VS FRANCE FOR CONTROL OF COLONIAL MARKETS
AMERICAN - CAPTURE QUEBEC UNDER JAMES' WOLFE
PEACE OF PARIS 1763
- PROCLAMATION ACT OF 1763
- PROHIBITS GOVERNMENT FROM GRANTING LAND BEYOND HEAD WATERS OF ATLANTIC
COLONISTS VIEW AS LAW W/O REPRESENTATION
- Sugar Act
Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
- Stamp Act
- March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
- Stamp Act Congress
27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.
- Patrick Henry
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
- Declatory Act
Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
- Quartering Act
- March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
- Townshend Acts, reaction
- Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767, they taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and they instutited another movement to stop importing British goods.
- John Adams
- A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
- William Bradford
- Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
- Massachusetts Bay Colony
- 1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
- Congregational Church
- The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church
- Roger Williams
- 1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
- King Philips War
- 1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
- Dominion of New England
- 1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
- Virginia: purpose, problems, failures, successes
- Virginia was formed by the Virginia Company as a profit-earning venture. Starvation was the major problem; about 90% of the colonists died the first year, many of the survivors left, and the company had trouble attracting new colonists. They offered private land ownership in the colony to attract settlers, but the Virginia Company eventually went bankrupt and the colony went to the crown. Virginia did not become a successful colony until the colonists started raising and exporting tobacco.
- Georgia: reasons, successes
- 1733 - Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.
- 1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.
- William Penn
- 1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom.
- New York
- New York belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
- Peter Stuyvesant
- The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
- Leislers Rebellion
- 1689 - When King James II was dethroned and replaced by King William of the Netherlands, the colonists of New York rebelled and made Jacob Leiser, a militia officer, governor of New York. Leisler was hanged for treason when royal authority was reinstated in 1691, but the representative assembly which he founded remained part of the government of New York.
- Benjamin Franklin
- Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
- Great Awakening
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies
- George Whitefield
- Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
- Lord Baltimore
- Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
- Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies
- Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
- Robert Walpole
- Prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.
- The Enlightenment
- A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
- Glorious Revolution
King James IIs policies, such as converting to catholicism, conducting a series of repressive trials known as the "Bloody Assizes," and maintianing a standing army, so outraged the people of England that Parliament asked him to resign and invited King William of the Netherlands (who became known as William II in England), to take over the throne. King James II left peacefully (after his troops deserted him) and King William II and his wife Queen Mary II took the throne without any war or bloodshed, hence the revolution was termed "glorious
- Albany Plan of Union
- Benjamin Franklin
During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government.
- Grenvilles Program
- As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies. He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.
- Gaspée Incident
- In June, 1772, the British customs ship Gaspée ran around off the colonial coast. When the British went ashore for help, colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They were sent to Britain for trial. Colonial outrage led to the widespread formation of Committees of Correspondence.
- Lord North
- Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis surrender in 1781.
- Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts
- All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
- Quebec Act, First Continental Congress
The Quebec Act, passed by Parliament, alarmed the colonies because it recognized the Roman- Catholic Church in Quebec. Some colonials took it as a sign that Britain was planning to impose Catholicism upon the colonies. The First Continental Congress met to discuss their concerns over Parliament's dissoltions of the New York (for refusing to pay to quarter troops), Massachusetts (for the Boston Tea Party), and Virginia Assemblies. The First Continental Congress rejected the plan for a unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilence. In response, in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion.
- SALUTORY NEGLECT ENDS
PEACE OF PARIS SIGNED
- CHARLES GETS RID OF PARLIAMENT
- JAMES I REIGNS
- SPANISH ARMADA DEFEATED BY ENGLISH
- HENRY III PROVOKES ENGLISH REFORMATION
- MARTIN LUTHER PUBLICLY CHALLENGES CENTRAL TENETS OF ROMAN CATHOLICS
- ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY
- 1672 ON
- MAY 1765
- QUARTERING ACT
- NOV 1765
- STAMP ACT
- SUGAR ACT
- GLORIOUS REVOLT
- STUARTS RETURN TO THRONE (CHARLES II)
- ENGLISH CIVIL WAR BEGINS
- VIRGINIA FOUNDED
- JULY 2, 1776
- CONTINENTAL CONGRESS RULES FOR INDEPENDENCE
- DEC 22, 1775
- PROHIBITORY ACT
- MAY 1775
- 2ND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
- APRIL 18 & 19, 1775
- LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
- SEP 5 1774
- 1ST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
- JUNE 22, 1774
- QUEBEC ACT
- MARCH-JUNE, 1774
- TOLERABLE ACTS
- TEA ACT, BOSTON TEA PARTY
- LORD NORTH APPOINTED, INTERLUDE ORDER
- MARCH 5, 1770
- BOSTON MASSACURE
- TOWNSHEND ACTS
- NAVIGATION ACT OF 1663
- STAPLE ACT-NOTHING IMPORTED TO AMERICAN UNLESS IT WENT THROUGH ENGLAND 1ST
- NAVIGATION ACT OF 1693
- TIGHTENS ENFORCEMENT, EXPANDS AMERICAN CUSTOMS SERVICE
SETS UP VICE ADMIRALITY COURTS=EFFECTIVE=NO JURIES OR ORAL CROSS EXAMS
- NAVIGATION ACT OF 1660
- 1. NO SHIP CAN TRADE IN COLONIES UNLESS CONSTRUCTED IN ENGLISH TERRITOY AND HAS 75% ENGLISH CREW
2. TOBACCO, SUGAR, COTTON, INDIGO, DYEWOODS, & GINGER HAD 2 STAY IN ENGLISH TERRITORY
3. 1704-RICE AND MOLLASSES
4. 1705-ROSINS,TARS, TURPENTINES
(VIRGINIA PROTESTS, NE SMUGGLES ON, DUTCH=BIG TIME COMPETITION FOR ENGLISH)
- NAVIGATION ACT OF 1673
- ESTABLISHED PLANTATION DUTIES
-LONDON CUSTOMS COMMISSIONER'S JURISDICTION EXTENDED TO AMERICA
-NOT FULLY ENFORCED
EDWARD RANDOLPH HEAD OF IMPERIAL CUSTOMS
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