Glossary of AP Psychology- Chapter 1 terms

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The science of behavior and mental processes
Nature vs. Nurture Issue
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions of genes and experiance to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Basic Research
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Applied research
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Clinical Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example:drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
Critical thinking
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
Hindsight bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it
An explaination using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different subjects in different situations, to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other subjects and circumstances
Case Study
An observation technique in which one person is studies in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
False Consensus effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
All of the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
Random sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Naturalistic observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
A statistical measure that indicates the extent of which two factors vary together and thus how well either factor predicts the other
Illusory correlation
The perception of a relationship where none exists
A research method in which the investrigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) while controlling other relevant factors by random assignment of subjects
Experimental condition
The condition of an experiment that exposes subjects to the treatment (to one version of the "independent variable")
Control condition
The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Random Assignment
Assigning subjects to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different group
Independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
Dependent variable
The experimental factor- in psychology, the behavior or mental process- that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to maipulations of the independent variable
Operational Definition
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables
An insert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent
Double-blind procedure
An experimental procedure in which both the subject and the research staff are ignorant (bllind) about whether the subject has received the treatment of a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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