Glossary of AP Psych. - Summer Lab, (Psychology Timeline)

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What were Plato's beliefs?
Nativist; inherited from parents
What were Aristotle's beliefs?
Empiricist; from environment
What aspects of human behavior did Aristotle develop theories on?
Learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception, and personality
Was Descartes a nativist or an empiricist?
What idea did Descartes dualism precede?
Nerves; threads of the body and some movements are made without them
Was John Locke a nativist or an empiricist?
What were John Locke's beliefs?
Mind a blank slate at birth; knowledge comes from direct sensory experience, as bits of information from our eyes and ears become linked together to form more complex ideas
Who was Herman von Helmholtz?
Demonstrated that the impulses in the nerves were not instantaneous and took a finite amount of time
From which two fields of study did psychology develop?
Philosophy and physiology
With whom did psychology begin as a scientific discipline?
Wilhelm Wundt
What did Wilhelm Wundt do?
Founded first psycology laboratory
When and where did Wundt found his laboratory?
1879; Leipzig, Germany
What did G. Stanley Hall do?
Founded the first psychology laboratory in the United States; founded American Psychological Association in 1892
Where was the first psychology laboratory in the United States and when was it founded?
Johns Hopkins University; 1883
When did Stanley G. Hall found the American Psychological Association?
What does psychology mean in Greek?
"The study of the mind and soul"
Who was Edward Titchener?
Used introspection
Who used introspection?
Edward Titchener and William James
Who was William James?
Wrote the first comprehensive psychology textbook in 1890
When did William James write the first comprehensive psychology textbook?
Who was Herman Ebbinghaus and who did he use as a subject?
Began a systematic program to research memory; used himself
Who was Mary Whiton Calkins?
Pioneer in the study of memory, dreams, and personality; first woman elected as president of the APA
Who was the first woman elected as president of the APA?
Mary Whiton Calkins
Who nationality was Sigmund Freud?
What did Freud focus on?
Disturbances on the mind; developed theory on personality and the systematic method of psychotherapy
Why did psychology turn away from introspection?
No one can verify what a person is feeling or thinking
What did Edward Thorndike study?
Cats and rats
On what subject did Margaret Floy Washburn write her book?
Animal behavior
Who was the first woman to receive her Ph.D. in psychology?
Margaret Floy Washburn
Who was Ivan Pavlov?
Demonstrated that dogs could be trained to behave a certain way everytime a certain stimulus appeared, (classical conditioning)
Who was John Watson?
Redefined psychology as the "science of observable behavior," emphasizing the similarities between human behavior and animal behavior, especially in learning
What was the dominant perspective in the 1920's and 1960's?
Who was B.F. Skinner?
Popularized the concept of reinforcement and the process of "operant conditioning"
Who was Jena Piaget?
Studied intellectual growth in children
What was the trend in the 1960's and 1970's?
Place individual behavior in the context of groups and cultures
What was the trend in the 1980's and 1990's
Returned to roots in physiology and evolutionary biology
Who was Abraham Moslow?
Humanistic phychologist who developd a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth
Who was Noam Chomsky?
American linguist who influenced the growth of cognitive psychology
Who was Carl Rogers?
American psychotherapist who was a supporter of humanistic psychology

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