Glossary of AP Psych. - Module 2
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- What three men have proven hindsight bias?
- Slovic, Fischof, and Wood
- How Slovic, Fischof, and Wood proven hindsight bias?
- Gave half of members of a group some purporte dpsycholgoical findings and the other half the opposite results; both groups explained the results
- How often are students confident about their plans and how often are they correct?
- Confident 84% of the time and correct 79% of the time
- How often are experts confident and how often are they correct?
- Confident 80% of the time and correct 40% of the time.
- What did James Randi test?
- Auras by asking people if they could tell where they were behind a wall based on the aura
- What are the three basic steps of the scientific method?
- Make observations, form theories, refine theories in light of new observations
- What is an operational definition?
- Statement of the procedures used to define research variables, that allows others to replicate their observations
- When is a theory useful?
- If it: 1. effecitvely organizes a range of self-reports and observations and ; 2. implies clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to derive practical applications
- What are the three different types of research?
- Descriptive, correlational, and experimental
- What type of research is a survey?
- Descriptive and correlational
- Give an example of unrepresentative statistics.
- Shere Hite's book, Women and Love; said 70% or women married 5 years or more were having affairs and 95% felt emotionally harrassed by the men they love, when actually only 1 in 7 actually reported having an affair in their current marriage
- What did Andrew Whiten and Richard Byrne witness through naturalistic observation?
- Repeatedly saw one yhoung baboon pretending to have been attacked by another as a tactic to get its mother to drive the other baboon away from food.
- What does a correlation coefficient show?
- The extend to which two things relate; tells nothing about cause and effect
- Give two examples of how correlation coefficient can show a relationship, but not cause/effect
- Among men, length of marriage correlates positively to hair loss, because both are associated with age; people who wear hats are more likley to suffer skin cancer, because both are associated with fair-skinned ppl.
- What percent of ppl. repeat a digit in the lottery?
- Who won the lottery twice?
- Evelyn Marie Adams
- What is Persi Diaconis's quote?
- "The really unusual day would be one where nothing unusual happens."
- Where are the three goals of experimenters?
- Manipulate an independent variable, measure the dependent variable, and control all other variables
- Are averages derived from scores with high or low variability more reliable?
- Low variability
- Why does standard deviation better gauge whether scores are packed together or dispersed?
- It uses information from each score
- What does statistical significance indicate?
- The likelihood that a result will happen by chance. (It does not indicate the importance of the results.)
- Is the purpose of an experiment to re-create the exact behaviors of everyday life?
- No; the purpose is to test theoretical principles
- Describe three similarities that transcend cultural barriers.
- 1. People diagnose with dyslezia exhibit the same brian malfunction; 2. all languages share deep principles of grammar; 3. same factors contribute to loneliness
- What is Roger Ulrich's quote?
- "We cannot defend our scientific work with animals on the basis of the similarities between them and ourselves and then defend it morally on the basis of differences."
- How many animals are used in research?
- 30 million
- How many animals does the average person eat every year?
- 20 animals
- What percent of psychology's studies involved animals?
- Researchers argue that in studying animals, it is not the morality of good versus, but ____ vs. ____.
- compassion for animals vs. compassion for people
- What percent of animal researchers support government regulations protecting primates, dogs, and cats?
- What percent of animal researchers support regualtions providing for human care of rats and mice?
- What are the 4 suggestions that the APA and British Psychologicla Society make to investigators?
- 1. Obtain informed consent of potential participants
2. Protect them from harm and discomfort
3. Treat information about individual participants confidentially
4. Fully explain the research afterwards
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