Glossary of AP Government Vocabulary pt.2
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- Interest Group
- An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy.
- An interest group organized to influence governmental decisions, especially legislation. To lobby is to attempt to influence such decisions.
- A person attempting to influence government (especially legislation)decisions on behalf of the group.
- Social Movement
- A demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order. (civil rights of '60s)
- A valued benefit obtained by joining a political organization.
- Solidary Incentive
- The social rewards that lead people to join local/state organizations. People who find politics fun and want to meet others who share their interests are said to respond to solidary incentives.
- Material Incentive
- Benefits that have monetary value; including money, gifts, services, or discounts received as a result of one's membership in an organization.
- Purposive Incentive
- The benefit that comes from serving a cause or principle from which does not personally benefit.
- Ideological Interest Group
- A political organization that attracts members by appealing to their political convictions with a coherent set of controversial principles.
- Public interest lobby
- An organization the stated goals of which will principally benefit nonmembers.
- A signal telling a congressional representative what values are at stake in a vote--who is for, who against a proposal--and how that issue fits into his or her own set of political beliefs or party agenda.
- An assessment of a representative's voting record on issues important to an interest group. Such ratings are designed to generate public support for or opposition to a legislator.
- A journalist who searches through the activites of public officials and organizations seeking to expose conduct contrary to the public interest. The term was first used by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906 to warn that antibusiness journalism, while valuable, could be excessively negative.
- Sound Bit
- A statement no longer than a few seconds used on a radio or television new broadcast.
- Trial Balloon
- Information provided to the media by an anonymous public official as a way of testing the public reaction to a possible policy or appointment.
- Loaded Language
- Words that reflect a value judgment, used to persuade the listener without making an argument. Example, if someone likes a politician he might call him "the esteemed..."; if he doesn't like him, he might refer to him in a derogatory term or expression.
- Equal time Rule
- A rule of the FCC stating that if a broadcaster sells time to one candiate for office, he or she must be willing to sell equal time to opposing candidates.
- Right of Reply rule
- A rule of the FCC that if a person is attacked on a broadcast, that person has the right to reply over that same station.
- Political editorializing rule
- A rule of the FCC that if a broadcaster endorses a candidate, the opposing has a right to reply.
- Fairness doctrine
- A former rule of the FCC that required broadcasters to give time to opposing views if they broadcast a program giving one side of a controversial issue.
- Selective attention
- Paying attention only to those parts of a newspaper or broadcast story with which one agrees. Studies suggest that this is how people view political ads on television.
- Routine stories
- Media reports about public events that are regularly covered by reporters and that involve simple, easily described acts or statements. Congress passing a bill is an example.
- Feature stories
- Media reports about public events knowable to any reporter who cares to inquire, but involving acts and statements not routinely covered by a gorup of reporters. Thus a reporter must take the initiative and select a particular event as newsworthy, decide to write about it, and persuade an editor to run it.
- Insider stories
- Information not usually made public that becomes public because someone with inside knowledge tells a reporter. The reporter may have worked hard to learn these facts, in which case it is called "investigative reporting," or some official may have wanted a story to get out, in which case it is called a "leak."
- Adversarial press
- A national press that is suspcious of officialdom and eager to break an embarrassing storya bout a public official.
- Background story
- A public official's explanation of current policy provided to the press on the condition that the source remain anonymous.
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