Glossary of AP English Final
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- 1. utterly hopeless, miserable, humiliating, or wretched: abject poverty.
2. contemptible; despicable; base-spirited: an abject coward.
3. shamelessly servile; slavish.
4. Obsolete. cast aside.
- 1. anything abominable; anything greatly disliked or abhorred.
2. intense aversion or loathing; detestation: He regarded lying with abomination.
3. a vile, shameful, or detestable action, condition, habit, etc.: Spitting in public is an abomination.
- 1. sharp or severe in effect; intense: acute sorrow; an acute pain.
2. extremely great or serious; crucial; critical: an acute shortage of oil.
3. (of disease) brief and severe (opposed to chronic).
4. sharp or penetrating in intellect, insight, or perception: an acute observer.
5. extremely sensitive even to slight details or impressions: acute eyesight.
6. sharp at the end; ending in a point.
- 1. doubtfulness or uncertainty of meaning or intention: to speak with ambiguity; an ambiguity of manner.
2. an unclear, indefinite, or equivocal word, expression, meaning, etc.: a contract free of ambiguities; the ambiguities of modern poetry.
- 1. having or showing pleasant, good-natured personal qualities; affable: an amiable disposition.
2. friendly; sociable: an amiable greeting; an amiable gathering.
3. agreeable; willing to accept the wishes, decisions, or suggestions of another or others.
4. Obsolete. lovable or lovely.
- 1. the state or quality of being ample, esp. as to breadth or width; largeness; greatness of extent.
2. large or full measure; abundance; copiousness.
3. mental range, scope, or capacity.
4. Physics. the absolute value of the maximum displacement from a zero value during one period of an oscillation.
5. Electricity. the maximum deviation of an alternating current from its average value.
6. Astronomy. the arc of the horizon measured from the east or west point to the point where a vertical circle through a heavenly body would intersect the horizon.
- 1. to reduce to utter ruin or nonexistence; destroy utterly: The heavy bombing almost annihilated the city.
2. to destroy the collective existence or main body of; wipe out: to annihilate an army.
3. to annul; make void: to annihilate a law.
4. to cancel the effect of; nullify.
- 1. a person who dedicates his or her life to a pursuit of contemplative ideals and practices extreme self-denial or self-mortification for religious reasons.
2. a person who leads an austerely simple life, esp. one who abstains from the normal pleasures of life or denies himself or herself material satisfaction.
3. (in the early Christian church) a monk; hermit.
- 1. inspiring reverence or admiration; of supreme dignity or grandeur; majestic: an august performance of a religious drama.
2. venerable; eminent: an august personage.
- 1. a strong feeling of dislike, opposition, repugnance, or antipathy (usually fol. by to): a strong aversion to snakes and spiders.
2. a cause or object of dislike; person or thing that causes antipathy: His pet aversion is guests who are always late.
3. Obsolete. the act of averting; a turning away or preventing.
- 1. morally low; without estimable personal qualities; dishonorable; meanspirited; selfish; cowardly.
2. of little or no value; worthless: hastily composed of base materials.
3. debased or counterfeit: an attempt to eliminate the base coinage.
4. characteristic of or befitting an inferior person or thing.
5. of illegitimate birth.
6. not classical or refined: base language.
- 1. radiant; bright.
2. smiling brightly; cheerful.
- inclined or eager to fight; aggressively hostile; belligerent; pugnacious.
- 1. an utterance of good wishes.
2. the form of blessing pronounced by an officiating minister, as at the close of divine service.
3. a ceremony by which things are set aside for sacred uses, as a church, vestments, or bells.
4. (usually initial capital letter) Also called Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. a service consisting of prayers, at least one prescribed hymn, censing of the congregation and the Host, and a blessing of the congregation by moving in the form of a cross the ciborium or monstrance containing the Host.
5. the advantage conferred by blessing; a mercy or benefit.
- 1. desire to do good to others; goodwill; charitableness: to be filled with benevolence toward one's fellow creatures.
2. an act of kindness; a charitable gift.
- 2. any cause of impairment, destruction, ruin, or frustration: Extravagance was the blight of the family.
3. the state or result of being blighted or deteriorated; dilapidation; decay: urban blight.
- Extreme happiness; ecstasy.
The ecstasy of salvation; spiritual joy.
- . 1. a great misfortune or disaster, as a flood or serious injury.
2. grievous affliction; adversity; misery: the calamity of war.
- 1. frank; outspoken; open and sincere: a candid critic.
2. free from reservation, disguise, or subterfuge; straightforward: a candid opinion.
3. informal; unposed: a candid photo.
4. honest; impartial: a candid mind.
- 1. the action of causing or producing.
2. the relation of cause to effect; causality.
3. anything that produces an effect; cause.
- 1. strong or vehement expression of disapproval: The newspapers were unanimous in their censure of the tax proposal.
2. an official reprimand, as by a legislative body of one of its members.
- 1. to discipline, esp. by corporal punishment.
2. to criticize severely.
3. Archaic. to restrain; chasten.
4. Archaic. to refine; purify.
- roundabout; not direct: a circuitous route; a circuitous argument.
- 1. cowardly; contemptibly timid; pusillanimous.
- 1. to reach the highest point, summit, or highest development (usually fol. by in).
2. to end or arrive at a final stage (usually fol. by in): The argument culminated in a fistfight.
- humiliation, disgrace, dishonor, debasement.
- 1. the state of being depraved.
2. a depraved act or practice.
- to laugh at in scorn or contempt; scoff or jeer at; mock.
- deserving to be despised; contemptible: a mean, despicable man.
- 1. without consolation or solace; hopelessly unhappy; inconsolable: Loss of her pet dog made her disconsolate.
2. characterized by or causing dejection; cheerless; gloomy: disconsolate prospects.
- 1. to speak of or treat slightingly; depreciate; belittle: Do not disparage good manners.
2. to bring reproach or discredit upon; lower the estimation of: Your behavior will disparage the whole family.
- to instruct or benefit, esp. morally or spiritually; uplift: religious paintings that edify the viewer.
- 1. to produce, cause, or give rise to: Hatred engenders violence.
2. to beget; procreate.
- 1. vanishing; fading away; fleeting.
2. tending to become imperceptible; scarcely perceptible.
- 1. in existence; still existing; not destroyed or lost: There are only three extant copies of the document.
2. Archaic. standing out; protruding.
- the act of exulting; lively or triumphant joy, as over success or victory.
- 1. producing or capable of producing offspring, fruit, vegetation, etc., in abundance; prolific; fruitful: fecund parents; fecund farmland.
2. very productive or creative intellectually: the fecund years of the Italian Renaissance.
- 1. strict observance of promises, duties, etc.: a servant's fidelity.
2. loyalty: fidelity to one's country.
3. conjugal faithfulness.
4. adherence to fact or detail.
5. accuracy; exactness: The speech was transcribed with great fidelity.
- 1. to burn with an unsteady, swaying flame, as a torch or candle in the wind.
2. to blaze with a sudden burst of flame (often fol. by up): The fire flared up as the paper caught.
- 1. incapable of producing any result; ineffective; useless; not successful: Attempting to force-feed the sick horse was futile.
2. trifling; frivolous; unimportant.
- not mutable; unchangeable; changeless.
- incapable of being upset or agitated; not easily excited; calm: imperturbable composure.
- 1. not permitting penetration or passage; impenetrable: The coat is impervious to rain.
2. incapable of being injured or impaired: impervious to wear and tear.
3. incapable of being influenced, persuaded, or affected: impervious to reason; impervious to another's suffering.
- not to be appeased, mollified, or pacified; inexorable: an implacable enemy.
- 1. of, pertaining to, or characterized by impertinence or effrontery: The student was kept late for impudent behavior.
2. Obsolete. shameless or brazenly immodest.
- 1. not corrigible; bad beyond correction or reform: incorrigible behavior; an incorrigible liar.
2. impervious to constraints or punishment; willful; unruly; uncontrollable: an incorrigible child; incorrigible hair
- 1. not dissoluble; incapable of being dissolved, decomposed, undone, or destroyed.
2. firm or stable.
3. perpetually binding or obligatory
- 1. unyielding; unalterable: inexorable truth; inexorable justice.
2. not to be persuaded, moved, or affected by prayers or entreaties: an inexorable creditor.
- 1. characterized by cleverness or originality of invention or construction: an ingenious machine.
2. cleverly inventive or resourceful: an ingenious press agent.
- 1. existing in someone or something as a permanent and inseparable element, quality, or attribute: an inherent distrust of strangers.
2. Grammar. standing before a noun.
3. inhering; infixed.
- 1. not within proper or reasonable limits; immoderate; excessive: He drank an inordinate amount of wine.
2. unrestrained in conduct, feelings, etc.: an inordinate admirer of beauty.
3. disorderly; uncontrolled.
4. not regulated; irregular: inordinate hours.
- 1. incapable of being investigated, analyzed, or scrutinized; impenetrable.
2. not easily understood; mysterious; unfathomable: an inscrutable smile.
3. incapable of being seen through physically; physically impenetrable: the inscrutable depths of the ocean.
- 1. of, pertaining to, or belonging as a part of the whole; constituent or component: integral parts.
2. necessary to the completeness of the whole: This point is integral to his plan.
3. consisting or composed of parts that together constitute a whole.
4. entire; complete; whole: the integral works of a writer.
- resolutely fearless; dauntless: an intrepid explorer.
- 1. easily provoked to anger; very irritable: an irascible old man.
2. characterized or produced by anger: an irascible response.
- 1. lacking in vigor or vitality; slack or slow: a languid manner.
2. lacking in spirit or interest; listless; indifferent.
- . present but not visible, apparent, or actualized; existing as potential: latent ability.
2. Pathology. (of an infectious agent or disease) remaining in an inactive or hidden phase; dormant.
3. Psychology. existing in unconscious or dormant form but potentially able to achieve expression: a latent emotion.
- 1. of, pertaining to, or affected with lethargy; drowsy; sluggish.
2. producing lethargy.
- 1. easily understood; completely intelligible or comprehensible: a lucid explanation.
2. characterized by clear perception or understanding; rational or sane: a lucid moment in his madness.
3. shining or bright.
4. clear; pellucid; transparent.
- 1. generous in forgiving an insult or injury; free from petty resentfulness or vindictiveness: to be magnanimous toward one's enemies.
2. high-minded; noble: a just and magnanimous ruler.
3. proceeding from or revealing generosity or nobility of mind, character, etc.: a magnanimous gesture of forgiveness.
- the quality, state, or feeling of being malevolent; ill will; malice; hatred.
- 2. random or deliberate violence or damage.
3. a state of rowdy disorder: Antagonisms between the various factions at the meeting finally boiled over, and mayhem ensued.
- 1. in a dying state; near death.
2. on the verge of extinction or termination
- 1. an excessively parsimonious, miserly, or stingy person.
- 1. characterized by or showing servile complaisance or deference; fawning: an obsequious bow.
2. servilely compliant or deferential: obsequious servants.
3. obedient; dutiful.
- 1. deserving or causing hatred; hateful; detestable.
2. highly offensive; repugnant; disgusting.
- dreamily or wistfully thoughtful: a pensive mood.
- 1. a state of final spiritual ruin; loss of the soul; damnation.
2. the future state of the wicked.
- 1. having or showing a dutiful spirit of reverence for God or an earnest wish to fulfill religious obligations.
2. characterized by a hypocritical concern with virtue or religious devotion; sanctimonious.
3. practiced or used in the name of real or pretended religious motives, or for some ostensibly good object; falsely earnest or sincere: a pious deception.
- 1. to hasten the occurrence of; bring about prematurely, hastily, or suddenly: to precipitate an international crisis.
2. to cast down headlong; fling or hurl down.
3. to cast, plunge, or send, esp. violently or abruptly: He precipitated himself into the struggle.
- to speak falsely or misleadingly; deliberately misstate or create an incorrect impression; lie.
- of or pertaining to the first age or ages, esp. of the world: primeval forms of life.
- 1. lightness of mind, character, or behavior; lack of appropriate seriousness or earnestness.
2. an instance or exhibition of this.
- 1. the quality or fact of being prodigal; wasteful extravagance in spending.
2. an instance of it.
3. lavish abundance.
- 1. wise or judicious in practical affairs; sagacious; discreet or circumspect; sober.
2. careful in providing for the future; provident: a prudent decision.
- 1. given to seizing for plunder or the satisfaction of greed.
2. inordinately greedy; predatory; extortionate: a rapacious disposition.
- To bring into or return to a suitable condition for use, as cultivation or habitation: reclaim marshlands
- 1. dealing with very profound, difficult, or abstruse subject matter: a recondite treatise.
2. beyond ordinary knowledge or understanding; esoteric: recondite principles.
- 1. distasteful, objectionable, or offensive: a repugnant smell.
2. making opposition; averse.
- 1. required or necessary for a particular purpose, position, etc.; indispensable: the requisite skills of an engineer.
- 1. to assail with contemptuous or opprobrious language; address or speak of abusively.
- 1. pertaining to rudiments or first principles; elementary: a rudimentary knowledge of geometry.
2. of the nature of a rudiment; undeveloped or vestigial.
- acuteness of mental discernment and soundness of judgment.
- 1. to supply with anything to excess, so as to disgust or weary; surfeit.
2. to satisfy to the full; sate.
- the state or quality of being serene, calm, or tranquil; sereneness.
- threatening or portending evil, harm, or trouble; ominous: a sinister remark.
- 1. morally ignoble or base; vile: sordid methods.
2. meanly selfish, self-seeking, or mercenary.
3. dirty or filthy.
- a visible incorporeal spirit, esp. one of a terrifying nature; ghost; phantom; apparition
- haughtily disdainful or contemptuous, as a person or a facial expression.
- one who makes a humble entreaty to; beseech
- dark; gloomy; obscure.
- 1. full of tumult or riotousness; marked by disturbance and uproar: a tumultuous celebration.
2. raising a great clatter and commotion; disorderly or noisy: a tumultuous crowd of students.
- . the quality or state of being turbulent; violent disorder or commotion.
- zealous; ardent; impassioned: a vehement defense; vehement enthusiasm
- 1. irritated; annoyed: vexed at the slow salesclerks.
2. much discussed or disputed: a vexed question.
- 1. craving or consuming large quantities of food: a voracious appetite.
2. exceedingly eager or avid: voracious readers; a voracious collector.
- careless; reckless:
- to dry (hay, wood, etc.) by exposure to air and sun
- an apparition of a living person supposed to portend his or her death.