Glossary of AP Comparative Gov't
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- Name the 6 Socioeconomic goals
- Equity, Efficiency, Security, Freedom, Stability, Growth
- When and Where did Thomas Hobbes live?
- English, lived between 1588-1679
- What did Thomas Hobbes believe was required from the gov't for stability?
- Strength and Unity- had to move because of English Civil War, saw Sun King's success- believed in strong monarch
- What two key beliefs did Thomas Hobbes develop?
- Rights of man (life, liberty, property) and Social Contract
- What process did Thomas Hobbes believe gov't had to go through to be formed?
- God creates a "Leviathan" who is superior to the others
The Leviathan is the State
The State creates a Community through Force (by Conquering (Individuals in) Anarchy)
The State guarantees security and stability inexchange for absolute obedience
- What is a RULE UTILITARIAN?
- belief in the greatest good for the greatest number demands the uncompromising application of a set of objective rules
- What was Jean Rousseau's master work?
- The Social Contract
- What did Rousseau believe about the ideal government size?
- The ideal government is a small, elected group; and the ideal state is small enough to allow the citizens to know one another
- What did Rousseau believe that Hobbes did not?
- Any LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY must involve CONSENT of the GOVERNED. Hobbes believed that the state came before the individual. he did not believe in consent of the gov't because of his belief in the Divine Right.
- What is an ACT UTILITARIAN?
- the good of the individual must never be sacrificed for the good of the community
the individual is ALWAYS more important than the community
- What was Adam Smith's chief work?
- Wealth of Nations
- Was Rousseau an Act Utilitarian or a Rule Utilitarian?
- Act Utilitarian
- Was Hobbes an Act Utilitarian or a Rule Utilitarian?
- Rule Utilitarian
- What did Karl Marx believe about the growth of capitalism?
- prevents human beings from reaching their full potential as self-determining and self-actualizing human beings
- Who was the founder of SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM?
- Karl Marx
- Define absolutism
- The system of government in which the ruler (or rulers) had unrestricted power. It is generally used to refer to the period in which European kings believed they ruled by divine right and they should exercise that right over their subjects. It can be contrasted with a constitutional monarchy, in which the power of the monarch is limited.
- Define oligarchy
- Oligarchy is a form of government where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). The word oligarchy is from the Greek for "few" and "rule". Some political theorists have argued that all societies are inevitably oligarchies no matter the supposed political system.
- define altruism
- Altruism, like passion, is the key intent that philanthropy expresses; a concern for the welfare of others; selflessness
- define laissez-faire
- The doctrine or system of government non-interference in the economy except as necessary to maintain economic freedom. Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher were great believers in laissez-faire economics.
- define romanticism
- A reaction against neoclassicism. This early 19th- century movement elevated the individual, the passions, and the inner life. It stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms, and rebellion against social conventions.
- define alienation
- This was a term used by Karl Marx (1818-83) to denote the division and separation between the upper class ( bourgeosie ) and the lower class ( proletariat ). In recent years, the term has been used to suggest estrangement, powerlessness, and the depersonalization of the individual.
- define leviathan
- by Hobbes, "the state" or those given by God the right and ability to govern. Also the title of one of his books!
- define authoritarianism
- A political system where the administration of government is centralized. The ruler's personality may play an important role in maintaining the system and advancing the notion and practice of extreme authority as a political virtue. It is characterized by the curtailment of individual freedoms; excessive reliance on actual, and the threat of, violence and punishment; virtual unaccountability of government officals; and the aversion of the decision-making process to consultation, persuasion and the necessity of forging a policy consensus.
- define labor theory of value
- An approach to valuing commodities based on the amount of human labor required to produce them.
- define invisible hand
- The invisible hand is an expression that came about from work by Adam Smith. He argued that the 'invisible hand' would organise markets and ensure that they arrived at the optimum outcome. This would all happen by individuals and firms pursuing their self-interest, yet despite this apparent selfishness, the invisible hand of markets still ensured the best outcome for all concerned.
- define unalienable
- fundamental rights belonging to people, which cannot be taken away
- define entitlement
- A legal obligation on the federal government to make payments to a person, business, or unit of government that meets the criteria set in law
- define egalitarianism
- The practice of not recognizing, and even eliminating, differences in social status and wealth.
- define dialectics
- A philosophical term applied to methods of debate or argumentation that seek to prove or disprove the truth of something by the rules of logic or the laws of reasoning.
- Define Social Conscience
- putting the GENERAL INTERESTS of the COMMUNITY
ahead of our own individual PARTICULAR INTERESTS
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