Glossary of AP Chemistry Acids and Bases
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- Definition of acid/base: Arrhenius
- acid=ionizes in water and produce H+
HCl -> H+ + Cl-
base=ionizes in water and produce OH-
NaOH -> Na+ + OH-
- Definition of acid/base: Bronsted-Lowry
- acid= donate a proton (H+)
base= accepting a proton
NH3 + H2O <-> NH4+ + OH-
NH3 and OH- are bases
H2O and NH4+ are acids
- Definition of acid/base: Lewis
- acid= electron pair acceptor
base= electron pair donor
Exclusively lewis acid-base:
NH3 + BCl3 -> H3NBCl3
NH3 base, BCl3 acid.
- Increasing pH means decreasing
- Strong acids?
- HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
- Strong Bases
- LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2
- K constant for strong acid/bases?
- does not exist since they dissociate completely
- With an oxoacid like HClOx which would be stronger acid...HClO3 or HClO2
- HClO3 since there are more O atoms attached to central atom, weakening the attraction the central atom has for the H+
- The salt...NaCl..acidic, neutral or basic?
- The salt...NH4Cl..acidic, neutral or basic?
- The salt...NaC2H3O2..acidic, neutral or basic?
- conjugates of strong base/acid...what will happen in water?
- weak and unreactive
- Weak base, weak acid salt, pH?
- depend on relative strengths of conjugate acid and base of the specific ions in the salt
- Properties of buffers...
- -pH remains unchanged if diluted or concentrated
-weak acid/base with its conjugate
- Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
- pH = pKa - log [Acid]/[base]
- Polyprotic acids
- more willing to give up first protons...so H3PO4 is stronger acid than H2PO4-
- act as acid or base
- combine with water to form acid (formed by oxides of nonmetals) or base (formed by oxides of metals)
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