Glossary of AP Chemistry
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- Aufbau Principle
- - when building an electron configuration of atom, electrons are placed in orbitals, subshells, and shells in order of increasing energy
- Pauli Exclusion Principle
- - within an atom, no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers
- Hund's Rule
- - when an electron is added to a subshells, it will always occupy an empty orbital if one is available
- - elements with all e- paired up
- unaffected by magnetic fields
- - elements with unpaired e-
- affected by magnetic fields
- what does quantized mean?
- - electrons only exist at certain energy levels
- " a stairs"
- energy of an e-
- En = -2.178 x 10^-18 /n^2
En = the energy of the e-
n= the principal quantum number
- relationship of energy and electronamgnetic radiation
- change in E = hf = hc/λ
Change in E = energy change
h= plank's constant
c= speed of light
- speed of light
- = 3.00 x 10^8 m/sec
speed of light = λf
- Planks's constant
- = 6.63 x 10^-34 joule/sec
- de Broglie equation
- = λ = h/ mv
m = mass of particle
v = speed of particle
mv= p = momentum of particle
h= plank's constant
- Heisenbergy uncertainty principle
- - impossible to know both position and momentum of e-
- electron orbital is probabilty of e- found in that region
- Quantum theory
- - E is quantized
E = hf
- electron affinity
- - energy when an atom gains an e-
- - how strongly the nucleus attracts e-
- which is greater, 1st of 2nd ionization energy?
- 2nd > 1st
; remaining valence electron is closer to the nucleus
- what did Milikan do?
- - found charge of e-
- behavior of charged oil drops in electric field
- What did Rutherford do?
- - found hard nucleus and empty atom
- charged particles at gold foil
- What did Neils Bohr do ?
- -predicited that electrons orbit the nucleus at specific fixed radii
- can a theory be proven correct?
- - no
; can be supported through experimentation but not proved
- what did de Broglie discover?
- matter has wave charcateristics
- atomic radius
- - size decreases when closer to the nucleus
- * top of periodic chart
- - negativley charge atom
- electron is added
- - postively charge atom
- electons are removed
- to ionize
- - to remove and e
- forms a cation
- which is larger;
Ca or Ca 2+ ?
- Ca > Ca 2+
; Ca 2+ has less e- so nucleus pulls electons closer to the nucleus
- which is larger?
O or O 2- ?
- O 2- > O
; O has less e- than O 2-, so effective nuclear charge of 0 2- is greater that O and is able to pull farther away fronm the nucleus
- what did Dalton do?
- - atoms never created or destroyed
- Dmiritri Medeleev and Lothar Meyer
- - developed periodic table
- what did J.J. Thompson do?
- - plum pudding model
-wathced deflection of charges in cathode ray tube
- atoms have positive and negative particles
- idea of electrons and protons
- what do shell tell?
- - average distance of e- from nucleus
- higher shell means more energy
- what does subshell tell?
- -shape of electron's orbital
- what does orbital tell?
- - orientation of electron's orbital in space
- what do the Quantum numbers describe?
- the position of electron
- each electron has four quantum numbers
- what do spin tell?
- - direction electron spins
- - shell
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