Glossary of AP Chemistry

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Aufbau Principle
- when building an electron configuration of atom, electrons are placed in orbitals, subshells, and shells in order of increasing energy
Pauli Exclusion Principle
- within an atom, no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers
Hund's Rule
- when an electron is added to a subshells, it will always occupy an empty orbital if one is available
- elements with all e- paired up
- unaffected by magnetic fields
- elements with unpaired e-
- affected by magnetic fields
what does quantized mean?
- electrons only exist at certain energy levels
- " a stairs"
energy of an e-
En = -2.178 x 10^-18 /n^2

in joules
En = the energy of the e-
n= the principal quantum number
relationship of energy and electronamgnetic radiation
change in E = hf = hc/λ

Change in E = energy change
h= plank's constant
f= frequency
λ= wavelength
c= speed of light
speed of light
= 3.00 x 10^8 m/sec
speed of light = λf
Planks's constant
= 6.63 x 10^-34 joule/sec
de Broglie equation
= λ = h/ mv
λ= wavelength
m = mass of particle
v = speed of particle
mv= p = momentum of particle
h= plank's constant
Heisenbergy uncertainty principle
- impossible to know both position and momentum of e-
- electron orbital is probabilty of e- found in that region
Quantum theory
- E is quantized
E = hf
electron affinity
- energy when an atom gains an e-
- how strongly the nucleus attracts e-
which is greater, 1st of 2nd ionization energy?
2nd > 1st
; remaining valence electron is closer to the nucleus
what did Milikan do?
- found charge of e-
- behavior of charged oil drops in electric field
What did Rutherford do?
- found hard nucleus and empty atom
- charged particles at gold foil
What did Neils Bohr do ?
-predicited that electrons orbit the nucleus at specific fixed radii
can a theory be proven correct?
- no
; can be supported through experimentation but not proved
what did de Broglie discover?
matter has wave charcateristics
atomic radius
- size decreases when closer to the nucleus
- * top of periodic chart
- negativley charge atom
- electron is added
- postively charge atom
- electons are removed
to ionize
- to remove and e
- forms a cation
which is larger;
Ca or Ca 2+ ?
Ca > Ca 2+
; Ca 2+ has less e- so nucleus pulls electons closer to the nucleus
which is larger?
O or O 2- ?
O 2- > O
; O has less e- than O 2-, so effective nuclear charge of 0 2- is greater that O and is able to pull farther away fronm the nucleus
what did Dalton do?
- atoms never created or destroyed
Dmiritri Medeleev and Lothar Meyer
- developed periodic table
what did J.J. Thompson do?
- plum pudding model
-wathced deflection of charges in cathode ray tube
- atoms have positive and negative particles
- idea of electrons and protons
what do shell tell?
- average distance of e- from nucleus
- higher shell means more energy
what does subshell tell?
-shape of electron's orbital
what does orbital tell?
- orientation of electron's orbital in space
what do the Quantum numbers describe?
the position of electron
- each electron has four quantum numbers
what do spin tell?
- direction electron spins
- shell
- subshell
- orbital
- spin

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