Glossary of AP Biology terms for chapter 24

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the origin of new taxonomic groupls (new species, new genera, new families, even new kingdoms)
the origin of new species
a group whose members possesssimilar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed
a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce viable, fertile offspring, but who cannot produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other species
biological species concept
impede mating between species or hinder the fertilization of ova if members of different species attempt to mate
prezygotic barriers
prevent the hybrid zygote from developing into a viable, fertile adult
postzygotic barriers
defines a species in terms of its ecological niche, the set of environmental resources a species uses
ecological species concept
the factors that are most important for the cohesion of individuals as a species vary
pluralistic species concept
characterizes each species in terms of a unique set of structural features
morphological species concept
defines a species as a set of organisms with a unique genetic history
genealogical species concept
radical change in the genome of a subpopulation, reproductively isolating the subpopulation from the parent population
sympatric speciation
the emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment, presenting a diversity of new opportunities and problems
adaptive radiation
some plant species have their origins in accidents during cell division that result in extra sets of chromosomes
an individual that has more than has more than two chromosome sets, all derived from a single species
the contribution of two different species to a polyploid hybrid
a theory of evolution advocating spurts of relatively rapid change followed by long periods of stasis
punctuated equilibrium
structures that evolve in one context but become co-opted for another function
the shape of an organism depends in part on the relative growth rates of its different parts during development
allometric growth
evolutionary change in the rate of timing of developmental events
the retention in an adult organism of the juvenile features of its evolutionary ancestors
determine basic features
analogous to the production of a trend within a poplulation by natural selection
species selection

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