Glossary of AP Biology terms for Chapter 20

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DNA in which genes are from two different sources-often different species-are combined in vitro into the same molecule
recombinant DNA
the direct manipulation of genes for practical prtposes
genetic engineering
the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products
the production of multiple copies of a gene
gene cloning
a degradation enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA that is foreign to a bacterium
restriction enzyme
a diagram of a DNA molecule containing a recognition sequence
restriction site
a restriction enzyme cuts a DNA molecule in a reproducible way
restriction fragments
a single stranded end of a double-stranded DNA restriction fragments
sticky end
seals the stands by catalyzing the formation of phosphodiester bonds
DNA ligase
a DNA molecule that cn carry foreign DNA into a cell and replicate there
cloning vector
base pairing between a gene and a complementary sequence on another nucleic acid molecule
nucleic-acid hybridization
a short, single-stranded nucleic acid that can be either RNA or DNA
nucleic acid probe
separation of two strands
a cloning vector that contains the requisite prokaryotic promoter just upstream of a resriction site where the eukaryotic gene can be inserted
expression vector
each DNA molecule produced carries the complete coding sequence for a gene but no introns
complementary DNA or cDNA
combine the essentials of a eukaryotic chromosme-an origin for DNA replication, a centromere, and two telomeres-with foreign DNA
yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs)
apply a brie electrical pulse to a solution containing cells
the complete set of thousands of recombinant plasmid clones, each carrying copies of a particular segment from the initial genome
genomic library
a limited gene library using complementary DNA. The library includes only the genes that were transcribed in the cells examined
cDNA library
a thechnique by which any piece of DNA can be quickly amplified (copied many times)without using cells
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
the separation of nuclei acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel
gel electrophoresis
a hybridization technique that enables researchers to determine the presence of certain nucleotide sequences in a sample of DNA
Southern Blotting
differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different restriction fragment patterns turn out to be scattered abundantly throughout genomes
restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)
an effort to map the entire human genome, ultimately by determining the complete nucleotide sequence of the DNA of each human chromosome
Human Genome Project
a DNA mapping technique that begins with a gene or other sequence that has already been cloned, mapped, and sequenced and "walks" along the chromosomal DNA from that locus
chromosome walking
an artificial version of a bacterial chromosome that can carry inserts of 100,000 to 500,000 base pairs
bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs)
tiny amounts of a large number of single-stranded DNA fragments representing different genes are fixed to a glass slide in a tightly spaced array
DNA microarray assays
a technique that can be uses to introduce specific changes into the sequence of a couned gene
in vitro mutagenesis
synthetic double-stranded RNA molecules matching the sequence of a particular gen to trigger breakdown of the gene's messenger RNA
RNA interference (RNAi)
systematic study of the full protein sets (proteomes)encoded by genomes
the applcation of computer science and mathematics to genetic and other biological information
single base-pair variations in the genome
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
the alteration of an afflicted individual's genes
gene therapy
a harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates the immune system to fight the pathogen
specific pattern of bands, that is of forensic use
DNA fingerprint
individuals have different amounts of time repeated at one genome locus
simple tandem repeats (STRs)
genomes carry genes from another species
transgenic organisms
a plasmid of a tumor-introducing bacterium that integrates a segment of its DNA into the host chromosome of a plant
Ti plasmid
an organism that has aquired one or more genes by artificial means
genetically modified (GM) organisms

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