Glossary of AP Biology Ecology Test

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Organismal Ecology
behavioral, morphological, physiological respones of an organisms to its biotic/abiotic environment
Population Ecology
growth and regulation of population size
Community Ecology
Interactions such as predator-prey and competition that affect community structure
Ecosystem Ecology
energy flow and chemical cycles
Landscape Ecology
interactions among linked ecosystems
helps in comprehending both geographic isolation in evolution and broad patterns of current geographic distrubution
Accidentally introduced species into US that were bad
Zebra Mussel
Purposefully introduced species into US that were bad
African Honeybee
How temperature affects distribution
most cannot maintain body temps different than ambient temps
How water affects distribution
Must maintain water balance, must obtain/conserve enough water
How Sunlight affects distribution
ORganisms require for energy, photosynthesis
How wind affects distribution
Increases rate heat/water loss, plant morphology
Affect of Rocks and Soil on distribution
physical structure/ph/minerals affect distribution of all
Climate includes
Temperature, Water, Light, Wind
major types of ecosystems found in broad geographic regions
what affects Earth's seasons
tilt and shape
Tropics recieve _____ amt and ____ variation
great amt, little variation
Strong solar radiation near equator causes
global circulation of air (precipitation and winds)
mountains affect solar radiation how?
southern side of mtns get most sunlight
how do mtns affect temperature?
southern side is warmer and drier, the higher above sea level, the colder it becomes
how do mtns affect rainfall?
Rain collects over the sea, falls on windward side of range, leeward side is cool and dry --> desert
brings oxegynated water from surface to bottom and nutrient water fom nottom to surface in spring and autumn
winter has ___ oxygen at surface
medium, high in middle
summer has ___ oxygen at surface
high, very little medium content, low at bottom
climate on a small scale, differences in abiotic features, affect distribution
marine biomes have at least __ % salt concentration
3 %, <1% in freshwater
evaporation of seawater provides what
ovean temps have affect on
world climate and wind patterns
photic zone
enough light for photosynthesis
aphotic zone
litttle light for photosynthesis
separates warm surface waters from cold deep water
benthic zone
bottom substrate, home to benthos which is fed by detritus
littoral zone
shallow waters close to shore
limnetic zone
occupied by plankton, open surface farther from shore
profundal zone
detritus sinks to, deep aphotic and benthic
oligotrophic lakes
deep, clear, nutrient poor, non reproductive
eutrophic lakes
shallow, nutrient rich, large productive communities
mesotrophic lakes
moderate nutrients/plankton
area covered with water that supports aquatic plants
area where freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean, very productive biome
intertidal zone
where land meets water
neritic zone
shallower regions over the continental shelves
oceanic zone
past the continental shelf, reaching very great depths
pelagic zone
open water of any depth
coral reefs are made of
hard skeletal structures of calcim carbonate
ocean pelagic biome
constantly mixed by ocean currents, most of oceans waters far from shore
abyssal zone
very deep benthic communities, cold, high water presure, no light, no nutrients
deep sea hydrothermal vents
dark, hot, O poor, volcanic activitylike
uppermost layer of vegetation
vertical stratification
layering in a forest, different envirnments
root layer in artic tundra shallow
rtropical forests
variations in rainfall --> t. dry , t. deciduous, t. rain
grasslands, restricted vegetation by fires large mammals
hot or cold dry
mild, rainy winters, hot dry summers, densy spiny evergreen shrubs dominate
temperate grasslands
deep/rich soil w/ nutrients
temperate decidious forests
midlatitude regions, adequate moisture
coniferous forest
harsh winters, heavy snowfall
dwarfed vegetation, cold

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