Glossary of AP Bio Chapter 7

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How many calories of energy does the sun flow to the earth each year
13 x 10^23 calories
How much the the energy from the sun is reflected back into space?
How much of the energy from the sun is absorbed by the atmosphere?
How much of the energy from the sun reaches the surface of the earth and is converted to heat?
What is energy?
Energy is the ability to do work.
What kind of system is the earth?
The earth is an open system.
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
Ø In all energy exchanges and conversions – if no energy leaver or enters the system under study – the potential energy of the final state will always be less than the potential energy of the initial state.
A system without energy input will always seek _____.
the lowest energy state
What is the exergonic process?
· A process in which the potential energy of the final state is less than that of the initial state is one that releases energy.
What is the endergonic process?
If the potential energy of the products is higher than the potential energy of the reactants.
Whend does the endergonic process happen?
When there is energy input.
All natural process proceed towards what?
Cells ______, _______, and ______ energy.
capture, convert, store
At each transformation, what happens to heat energy?
Heat energy is dissipated.
what is oxidation?
oxidation is the loss of an electron, which is often accompanied by a proton.
what is reduction?
reduction is the gain of an electron, which is often accompanied by a proton.
what are three examples of oxidation/reduction reactions?
respiration, glycolysis, photosynthesis
why is energy activation important?
overcomes repulsion between molecules' electrons, and breaks chemical bonds.
as catalysts, enzymes:
lower energy of activation, speed up checmical reactions, are not permanantly altered in the process, largely determine the activities of cells, and react with one or more substrates
most enzymes are _____.
large globular proteins
most enzymes contain a ______ ______ _______ site.
groove shaped active
what are cofactors?
nonprotein substances required by enzymes
what are some types of cofactors?
ions such as magnesium, conenzymes such as vitamins, nonprotein organic molecules
what are biochemical pathways made of?
enzymes working in series
what are advantages of grouping enzymes in pathways?
enzymes in a pathway can be segregated in the cell, intermediate products tend not to accumulate, exergonic reactions pull preceding reactions forward
what is atp made of?
adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups, high energy bonds joined by phosphate groups
what are the most common interconversions are the most common in cells?
ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP by:
the removal of a phosphate group, and the release of 7kcal/mol
Exergonic reactions are linked to:
endergonic reactions

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