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Glossary of AP Bio - Chapter 4

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Cell Theory
First, every organism is composed of one or more cells. Second, the cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life. Third, the continuity of life arise directly from the growth and division of cells.
Cell
Smallest unit that lives on its own or has the potential to do so.
Plasma Membrane
Thin, outermost membrane maintains the cell as a distinct entity, but does not totally isolate the cell interior.
Nucleus/Nucleoid
Interior region (nucleiod) or membrane-bound sac (nucleus) of cell, contains DNA.
Cytoplasm
Everything between the plasma membrane and the DNA region
Nuclear Envelope
Nucleus membrane with two lipid bilayers and many protein molecules.
Chromosome
A DNA molecule and its associated proteins (regardless of what form)
Chromatin
A cell’s collection of DNA with all its proteins.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER, smooth or rough)
Abundant in cells that secrete the final forms of proteins.
Golgi body
Puts the finishing touches on proteins and then send them to the vesicles.
vesicle
Serves a variety of purposes, mainly to export and store proteins, build membranes, and help intracellular digestion.
mitochondria
Produce ATP (in plant cells, helped by chloroplasts).
chloroplasts
Use sunlight energy to drive the formation of ATP and NADPH.
Cytoskeleton
A complex, interconnected system of protein filaments that extends between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
Flagella and Cilia
Cells' motile structures
Cell Walls
Wrap completely around the plasma membrane of a cell to protect the cell
Secondary Walls
Accumulated secretions of waxes and other substances, reinforce cell shape and help protect the cell (inside primary wall).
Cell Junctions
Allow for inter-cell signals and cell conjunction

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