Glossary of AP BIO Unit 7: The Origin of Life

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Obtain energy by using CO2 to oxidize H2, producing methane as waste
-strict anaerobes
-live in swamps and marshes
-live in anaerobic guts of herbivores
Extreme Halophiles
live in high salinity
-great salt lake
-dead sea
Extreme Thermophiles
Thrive in hot environments
-hot springs in yellowstone and deep-sea hydrothermal vents
-obtain energy by oxidizing sulfer
restores 02 to the atmosphere but also fixes nitrogen
-pathogenic prokaryotes cause 1/2 of all human diseases
-legumes have lumps in roots which are homes of mutualistic prokaryotes (Rhizobium) that fix nitrogen that is used by the host
autgenous hypothesis
endomembrane system of eukaryotes may have evolved from infoldings of prokaryote's plasma membrane
endysymbiotic hypothesis
larger prokaryote engulfed smaller prokaryote for mutualistic relationship- mitochondria & chloroplasts
bases of most marine & freshwater food chains
protozoa (protists)
ingestive, animal-like protists
algae (protists)
photosynthetic, plant-like protists
absorptive (protists)
fungus-like protists
-diverse group of heterotrophic protists
-subdivision of this group into different phyla is based on how they FEED and MOVE
Phylum Rhizopoda
-Rhizopoda (=root like feet) include the amoebas and their relatives
-unicelleular, simplest of protists
-move and feed using pseudopodia (phagocytosis)
-most are free-living, some parasitic
-asexual reproduction
Phylum Actinopoda
-Actinopoda (=rayfeet) posess axopodia
-axopodia: projections reinforced by bundles of microtubules thinly covered by cytoplasm, used to increase SA which helps them float and function in feeding
Phylum Actinopoda (Types)
Radiolarian-marine, delicate shells made of silica
Phylum Foraminifera
-Forams have porous, multi-chambered, calcium carbonate shells
-must live in sand or attach to algae and rocks
-all marine
-pseudopodia extend through the shell's pres for swimming, feedin gand shell formation
Phylum Apcomplexa
-All are parasites of animals
-Infectious cells produced in the life cycle are called SPOROZOITES which have a complex of organelles specialized for penetrating host cells and tissues
-EX: Plasmodium: the parasite that cause MALARIA, spends part of its life in mosquitos and part in humans
Phylum Zoomastigophora
-Heterotrophs that phagocitize prey
-Use whip-like flagella to move
-Most are free-living, some are symbiotic
-Speciies: Trypanosoma cause African sleeping sickness (carried by tse-tse- fly)
Phylum Ciliophora
-Use cilia to move and feed
-Most lie in freshwater
-In a Paramecium, cilia along the oral groove draw in food that are engulfed by phagocytosis
-Accumulated water (freshwater=hypotonic) expelled from CONTRACTILE VACUOLE
-MACRONUCLEUS-Controls normal cell functions
-MICRONUCLEI- Several function in conjugation, a sexual process which produces genetic variation
multi-cellular algae
phylum dinoflagellata
-Dinoflagellates (dino=whirling) components of phytoplankton, provide the foundation of most marine food chains, some colonial
-Have brownish plastids containing chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and a mix of carotenoids, and PERIDININ
-Dinoflagellate blooms - RED TIDES (some toxins)
-Cell surface is reinforced by cellulose plates with flagella in perpendicular grooves, creating its whirling movement and resulting in a characteristic shape
Phylum Chrysophyta
-Includes the golden algae
-Live among freshwater plankton, most are colonial
-Flagellated cells with both flagella attached near one end of the cell
-Store carbs in the form of lamniarin, a polysaccharide
-Plastids have chlorophylla, chlorophyllc, yellow & brown carotenoids, and xanthophylls
-Survive envirnmental stress by forming reisstant cysts (emerge when conditions favorable)
Phylum Bacillariophyta
-Mostly unicellular with unique glasslike walls of hydrated silica in an organic matrix
-Wall is divided into 2 parts that overlap like a shoebox and lid
-Mostly produce asexually (mitosis) with each daughter cell recieving half the cell wall and regenerating the second half
-Same photosynthetic pigments as Chrysophyta
-Components of freshwater and marine plankton
-Store food in form of oil- buoyant
Diatomaceous Earth
-Accumulations of fossilized diatoms, used commercially as insect repellant (Glassy powder "tears up" and dries up insects from inside out but harmless to animals)
Phylum Euglenophyta
-Chlorophylla,chlorphyllab, carotenoids, xanthophyll
-Chiefly autotrophic, some are mixotrophic or heterotrophic
-Posess flexible internal protein plates instead of cell wall
-Characterzed by an anterior pocket from which one or two flagella emerge
-Have a unique glucose polymer, paramylon as a storage molecule
-Eyespot near base of flagellum used for phototaxis
Phylum Chlorophyta
-Green algae
-common ancestor of green algae and plants probably had chloroplasts derived from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis
-closely related to land plants
-most live in freshwater, others in marine, inhabit damp soil or snow, or live symbiotically with eukaryotes
-colonial forms are often filamentous ("pond scum")
-multicellular forms may have large, complex structures resembling true plants
Phylum Phaeophtya
-Brown algae
-large and most complext protist
-Chlorophylla, chlorophyllc, carotenoid pigment fucoxanthin
-Most are marine, common in temperate coasts (cool water)
Phylum Rhodophyta
-Red Algae
-Unlike other eukaryotic algae, have no flagellated stages
-Red color due to accessory pigment phycoerythrin, a phycobiliprotein
-Carbohydrate food reserves stored as floridean starch (similar to glycogen)
-Most live in warm coastal waters of tropical oceans
-Can inhabit deeper waters b/c phycobilin pigments can absorb wavelengths (blue and green) that penetrate down to deep wter
-Cell walls are cellulose with agar and carageenan
-Some have hard calcareous cell walls (calcium carbonate)

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