Glossary of APUSH terms
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- Adams-Clay Corrupt Bargain
- During the election of 1824, none of the candidates won the majority so the House of Representatives had to choose. Henry Clay, who was Speaker of the House, had a huge influence and got John Q. Adams into office. Then Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State. This angered many citizens since they felt "the people" didn't decide.
- Adam's "Midnight Judges"
- After Adams lost the re-election, he decided to appoint new federal judges at the very last minute (some say he signed them at midnight of his last day in office), and most of those appointed were Federalists. The incident caused much resentment and led to the case of Marbury vs. Madison. The result of the case was that the courts had the power of judicial review.
- Adams-Onis Treaty
- Since Spain had their hands full with slave revolts in the West Indies they gave Florida to America. They also ceded claims in Oregon. In return America ceded land in what would later be Texas.
- Adkins vs. Children's Hospital
- In 1923 this case was brought to court. It resulted in reversing the previous case Muller vs. Oregon that said that there should be separate safety precautions for women. The main argument in this case was that since women claimed equality to get the vote that they should be equal in other areas as well.
- Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA):
- Setup during Franklin D. Roosevelt's 100 day congress. In all, it helped millions of farmers during the Great Depression.
- Alien and Sedition Acts
- The Alien Act raised the requirement for citizens from 5 years to 14 years. The Sedition Act impeded on the freedom of Speech and the Freedom of the Press.
- Andrew Jackson taking Florida:
- In 1818, Jackson followed Indians into the Florida territory. Two Indian chiefs were hung and 2 British subjects were executed. He also captured 2 Spanish ports.
- Anti-Masonic Party:
- The Anti-Masonic Party emerged because of a disappearance and probable murder of a man who was going to expose secret rituals of the Madison’s in 1826.The Party didn't like monopolies, but they were actually anti-Jackson. In 1831, the Anti-Masonic Party was the 1st to hold a circus like national nominating convention.
- The Appomattox was a courthouse in Virginia where, in 1865, Lee and Grant signed the treaty ending the Civil War.
- Atlantic Charter
- One night in August of 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winton Churchill met in secret. They discussed a 8 point charter, the Atlantic Charter, that included a new version of Woodrow Wilson's League of Nations.
- Axis Alliance
- Between Hitler (Germany) and Mussolini (Italy). It is also called the Rome-Berlin Axis. Japan did not join the Axis until farther into the conflict.
- Bank of the U.S. (BUS):
- The Bank of the U.S. is mainly connected with Hamilton during the time that Washington was in office. Hamilton liked the idea of having the bank to further unite the nation and create a more centralized government. Along with creating the Bank of the U.S., Hamilton’s other ideas were things like how the national government should consume state debts. Jefferson, on the other hand, thought the B.U.S. was a bad idea. Yet, the Bank was created and was located in Philadelphia. Later on when Jefferson came into office he vetoed Henry Clay's resharter. Jefferson removed federal funds from the bank. This was mainly because Jefferson didn't like monopolies.
- Battle of Fallen Timbers:
- In 1794 General Wayne crushed Indians, after which he found that they had obtained British guns. It resulted in the Treaty of Greenville where the Indians agreed to abandon their British friends.
- Battle of New Orleans
- The battle was fought on January 8th, 1815, which was after the Treaty of Ghent was signed ending the War of 1812. Andrew Jackson led the fight against the British. In total 2,000 British and 73 Americans were killed. Jackson came out of the battle victorious. His successfulness helped him in his future election.
- Battle of Thames
- America and Britain wanted control of the Great Lakes (This is sometimes difficult to remember since the river that runs through London is names the Thames). Oliver Perry, for America, built a small fleet with which they captured the British fleet. This made the British retreat from Detroit and Fort Malden. They then were crushed by Harrison at the Battle of Thames.
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