Glossary of APUSH Ch. 12- Manifest Destiny and Mission
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- (look to Oregon/Willamette Valley and California/Sacramento Valley)
Middle class movement (cost $200-300) "squatters"- settle public land without paying or purchased for a low price. Overland Trails- Oregon, California, Santa Fe, Mormon trails.
- Wagon Trains
- Start at St. Joseph, Independence, Missouri, Council Bluff Iowa.
Caravans of pioneers support each other
Trip lasted 4 months (15 miles/day)
- Gadsden Purchase (1853)
- Pierce buys Southern sections of New Mexico/Arizona ($10 mill) from Mexico.
- East-West rail lines
- Stimulates the settlement of agricultural development of the midwest. Chicago- hub for grain shipment (replaces New Orleans)
- Indirectly stimulates Industrial development
- Stimulates small town growth.
- San Francisco and Mining
- Becomes a major city- main supply depot for miners. Violence becomes a major activity- vigilante committees formed to keep order.
Later gold and silver discovered in California to specialization.
- Military Campaign
- General Stephen Kearney takes New Mexico territory and South California.
John C. Fremont- Overthrows Mexican rule in North California- creates bear flag republic in Cali.
Taylor- crosses Rio Grande into Mexico- wins at Buena Vista.
Gen. Winfield Scott- (14,000 troops) Takes Vera Cruz and Mexico city.
- Advantages of Railroads
- Swift (40-50 mph) comfortable upholstered seats/couches.
- Wilmot Proviso (1846)
- David Wilmot proposed to forbid slavery in any of the new territories acquired from Mexico (passed House twice- defeated in Senate)
-Acquisition of western lands renewed the sectional debate over slavery.
- Ostend Manifesto
- 1852- Franklin Pierce- elected president- pro southern
Secretly negotiated to buy Cuba from Spain- was leaked to press- outraged antislavery congressman- Pierce forced to drop.
- William Walker Expedition
- Took over Nicaragua to develop a proslavery empire- it collapsed.
- Purchased from Russia in 1867. Will Seward- Sec. of State ($7 mill) opposed "Seward's icebox"
- Great American Desert
- Area between Mississippi Valley and the Pacific. Coast area passed over- felt it was too dry.
- Mountain Men
- Earliest exploration- James Beckwourth, Jim Bridger, Kit Carison, Jebediah Smith, John Jacob Astor
- Involved in lucrative fur trade
- Provided early info on frontier and trails.
- "Legends in their own day" amazing exploits
- Breakdown, lack of water, difficult trails, disease, depression, occasional Indian raids.
- Donner Party
- caught in a blizzard and turned to cannibalism.
- Expanding Economy
- Emergence of the market economy.
- Agricultural Technology
- Farmers shift from self-sufficiency to specialization.
- John Deere
- Steel tipped plow/ Cyrus McCormick reaper- leads to greater agricultural output. Agriculture has a negative impact on environment- farm wastefully, wear out the soil and then move on.
- Industrial Technology
- Elias Howe- invented the sewing machine that took clothing production out of the house and into a factory.
Samuel FB Morse- invented the telegraph- used to make it easier to communicate in business. Business and transportation go hand-in-hand with the growth of railroads.
- First Big Business
- Railroads are nations first big business- 1840-1860 miles of track went from 3,000 to 30,000
- Tyler (outgoing President) pushed for annexation again. Congress passes a joint resolutions- Texas is annexed.
Polk is left dealing with Mexico's reaction.
- Oregon Fever
- 5000 settlers travel the Oregon trail
- Immediate causes of the Mexican War (1846-47)
- Polk orders General Zachary Taylor toward the Rio Grande (area claimed by Mexico) Mexican army crosses Rio Grande- kills 11 Americans.
- Belief of Manifest Destiny and Mission
- It was the "divine mission" of the US to expand its borders
To extend its power and civilization across North America.
- Texas Annexation (1820s)
- Mexican gvt encourages American settlement (land grants)
Stephen Austin leads migration- brings in 300 families
1829- Mexico outlaws slavery and requires immigrants to convert Catholic religion
Mexico closed to immigration- ignored by Americans
- Republic of Texas
- "Lonestar Republic" created 1836
- Applies for annexation as a state. Presidents Jackson and Van Buren put off the request- political opposition in the North saw it as an attempt to expand slavery. Threat of war with Mexico. Tyler atempts in 1844, but rejected by the Senate.
- Consequences of War
- - Treaty of Guadlupe Hildago/Mexican Cession 1848
- Wilmot Proviso (1846)
- Treaty of Guadlupe Hidalgo
- Settles Mexican war-peace treaty. Because of Mexican Cession- Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas. US receives Mexican cession (Cal, Northern Mexican Territory) (Today it's California, Az, NM, Utah, Nevda and Colorado) US pays $15 mill and pays claims to US citizens who had claims against Mexico.
- "54 40 or fight!"
- Line between Oregon territory and Russian Alaska.
No fight- Polk compromises with Britain- divided the Oregon territory at 49th parallel (line established by LA purchase)
- Texas Annexation (1834) (1836)
- -Santa Anna becomes dictator- enforces laws in Texas
- Sam Houston leads revolt- declares Texas independent
- 1836- Santa Anna attacks and defeats the Americans at the Battle of the Alamo (San Antonio)
- Oregon Boundary Dispute
- Great Britain and the US both claim Oregon Territory
1840s- American farmers and missionaries settle in the Willamette Valley.
- Railroads provide:
- Democratic promise- one class of travel (Europe was classed)
- Election of 1844
- Whigs- Henry Clay
Democrats- "dark horse" James K. Polk- wins the election
Favors Texas annexation Manifest Destiny
"54 40 or fight" Campaign slogan.
- Causes of the Mexican war
- Polk attempts diplomacy with Mexico-sends John Slidell to negotiate
- Offers to buy New Mexico and California from Mexico.
Mexico- southern border of Texas is Nueces River.
Us- Southern border of Texas is the Rio Grande.
- Drawbacks of Railroads
- Horse drawn- first locomotives sparks on clothing. Individual railroads used different track gauge scheduling is a problem (no standard time)
Telegraph reduces delays.
- Gold discovered in 1848 in Sierra Nevadas. 1849 "Gold Rush" to Cali- creation of instant mining towns. Rise in population makes slavery an issue in California.
- Texas Annexation (Battle of San Jacinto)
- Houston surprises the Mexicans- Santa Anna is forced to recognize Texas Independence.
- Justification for expansion
- *Acquire new markets in Asia to agricultural surpluses.
- Oregon and California needed for harbors
*Preserve an agricultural society
- expand the land (industrialism leads to class conflict)
*America had the right to westward movement- to displace uncivilized or European people (early republicans)
*Economic Opportunity- Response to panic of 1837
- Farmers saw markets for products
- Poor saw it as a chance to get ahead
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