Glossary of AMT Kin 1 Test 2
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- What bones form the shoulder girdle?
- Clavicle and scapula
- What is the difference between phasic and postural muscles?
- Phasic = short lived activities, fast twitch muscle fibers
Postural = prolonged activities, slow twitch muscle fibers
- What is the difference between slow twitch and fast twitch fibers?
- Slow twitch = red, rich blood supply, contract slowly, fatique resistant, not much power, relies on aerobic pathways
Fast twitch = white, poor blood supply, contract rapidly, fatigue easily, rely on anaerobic pathways
- What is the only energy source used for contractile activities?
- What is the formula for converting creatine phosphate into energy?
- CP + ADP --> C + ATP
- What is the formula for aerobic respiration?
- O2 + glucose --> CO2 + H2O +36 ATP
- What is the difference between isotonic and isometric?
- Isotonic = tension remains constant, muscle shortens
Isometric = tension without movement
- How much stored ATP do you have?
- 4-6 seconds worth.
- Which process is faster anaerobic or aerobic?
- What is the difference between concentric & eccentric?
- concentric = muscle shortens, must overcome resistance
eccentric = muscle lengthens, yields to resistance
- What are the nerves that supply the muscles of the shoulder girdle?
- Cranial nerve XI, dorsal scapular nerve, medial pectoral nerve, long thoracic nerve.
- What type of muscle fiber arrangement makes the strongest muscle?
- Origin of trapezius
- external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, c7-t12 spinous processes
- Origin of levator scapulae
- C1-C4 transverse processes
- Origin of rhomboids
- C7-T5 spinous processes
- Origin of pectoralis minor
- Ribs 3, 4, 5 costal cartilages
- Origin of serratus anterior
- Outer 8 ribs
- Insertion of trapezius
- Upper: lateral third of clavicle and acromion
Middle: spine of scapula
Lower: root of spine of scapula
- Insertion of levator scapulae
- Superior angle of scapula
- Insertion of rhomboids
- Vertebral border
- Insertion of pectoralis minor
- Coracoid process
- Insertion of serratus anterior
- Vertebral border/anterior surface
- Action of trapezius
- Upper: elevation, upward rotation
Lower: depression, upward rotation
- Action of levator scapulae
- elevation, downward rotation
- Action of rhomboids
- retraction, downward rotation
- Action of pectoralis minor
- depression, protraction, downward rotation
- Action of serratus anterior
- protraction, upward rotation
- Nerve of trapezius
- Cranial nerve XI (accessory nerve)
- Nerve of levator scapulae
- Dorsal scapular
- Nerve of rhomboids
- Dorsal scapular
- Nerve of pectoralis minor
- Medial pectoral
- Nerve of serratus anterior
- Long thoracic
- What is oxygen debt?
- The difference between the amount of oxygen needed for totally aerobic respiration during muscle activity and that which is actually used.
- What's the distinguising factor of muscles of the shoulder girdle?
- Origins are in the axial skeleton and the insertions are in the appendicular skeleton
- What joint forms the axis of rotation for all shoulder girdle movement?
- Sternoclavicular joint
- What muscles produce pure protraction?
- Pectoralis minor & serratus anterior
- What muscle forms a bridge over the brachial plexus?
- Pectoralis minor
- What are some actions/activities that involve the shoulder girdle?
- Swimming forward - Protraction (serratus anterior, pectoralis minor)
Swimming backward - Retraction (middle traps, rhomboids)
Pushup Up - protraction
Pushup Down - retraction
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