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Glossary of AHSGE SS voc test 1

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Crusades
(1095-1270) Holy Wars waged by Europeans on the Muslims in the Middle East to regain the Holy Land of Christianity's founder, Jesus Christ. The Crusades
Compass
magnetic direction indicator
Astrolabe
an instrument to determine location by using the stars
Caravel
a new and very strong sailing ship
The Lost Colony
sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh, a group of 100 settled on the island of Roanoke in present-day North Carolina.
Renaissance
literally means "rebirth," and refers to the great cultural developments and societal changes that began in 14th century Italy and spread to the rest of Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Martin Luther
leader of the Protestant Reformation to reform the Catholic Church
Reformation
the movement to reform the Catholic Church
Christopher Columbus
an Italian explorer representing Spain who set out in 1492 to find a new route to Asia. His voyage marked the beginning of colonization efforts by European countries in the Americas.
Columbian Exchange
the mixture of the native cultures in the newly discovered Western Hemisphere with European cultures
Conquistadors
Spanish for "conquerors
Hernando Cortez
conquered the Aztec Empire in 1519 with the help of only 600 soldiers
Francisco Pizarro
conquered the Inca Empire in 1535
Francisco Coronado
explored the area of presentday New Mexico in 1540 in search of the legendary Seven Cities of Gold.
Hernando de Soto
explored the areas of present day Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi in search of same legendary cities
Juan Ponce de Leon
explored Florida looking for the Fountain of Youth
Mercantilism
an economic system by which a nation's power is measured by its gold reserves
St. Augustine
a settlement on the Florida coast founded by the Spanish in 1565, the first European city in North America, St. Augustine was vital for maintaining control of Florida and the Spanish trade from Mexico.
Jointstock company
a private company that sells shares to investors.
House of Burgess
limited royal authority and increased citizen participation in the colonial government
Plantation
vast farmland devoted to one main crop
Indentured servants
people who became servants for seven years to pay for their passage to the colonies
Triangular trade route
From the Caribbean. traders from the Southern colonies brought molasses to New York to be made into rum. Traders then took some of the rum to West Africa to be exchanged for slaves. Then traders brought the slaves back to plantations in the Caribbean or the Southern colonies where they bought molasses again.
Three areas of triangular trade
Caribbean, West Africa, New York
Mayflower Compact
guaranteed just and equal laws for all; 1st constitution of colonies

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