Glossary of ACDEC: Music

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How long was the Classical period? (dates)
Who did Mozart dedicate a set of string quartets to?
Joseph Haydn
True/False: Mozart had great difficulties writing string quartets.
What is chamber music?
Music with one player per part.
What's continuo?
Part in a baroque Chamber work that is entirely supportive, providing bass line and harmonies. It was usually the cello or harpsichord.
What were some major changes in Classical string quartets?
Included more polyphony, melodies in the form of dialogue, conversational texture (aka Classical counterpoint--distinction between melody and accompaniment flexible).
Which had a greater range of colors, symphonic writing or chamber music?
What was considered the "composer's genre" of the 18th century?
String quartet.
True or False: Haydn's string quartets were rarely eccentric.
False. They were noted and sometimes condemned for their eccentricity.
Define presto.
The fast movement of a piece (or just "fast")
What is the rondo?
Refrain form that was often used in the last movement of a multi-movement work to keep it satisfying and not heavy.
What's a ripieno concerto?
A concert in which the entire orchestra can take on a solo role; a precursor to the symphony.
About how many different symphonic works were written in the 18th century?
Over 13,000.
What's an oratorio?
non-staged, extended work for chorus, soloists, adn orchestra based on a biblical topic, usually didactic.
What are the two aesthetic modes?
The beautiful and the sublime
What does the beautiful emphasize?
Order, proportion, and gentler emotions.
What does the sublime emphasize?
Grand and collossal, things outside of reason.
How does Haydn's "The Creation" invoke the religious sublime?
"And there was Light"--powerful expression from piano to forte
What is the name of the overture that begins "The Creation?"
"The Representation of Chaos"
Which later composer imitated Hadyn's move from the minor to the major as a triumph over adversity?
Beethoven (and other later Beethoven followers)
What's the German for conoisseur, and what is the definition as related to music?
Kenner--well educated, appreciated the complexities and technicalites of a piece
What's German for "amateur", and what's the definition?
Liebhaber--devoted to art but not talented, sensitive, or educated enough to be a connoisseur
Which of the two categories was the string quartet written for? the symphony? the piano concerto?
Kenner, Liebhaber, both
Which composer was known for his piano concertos?
Define cadenza
a passage during which the orchestra drops out and the soloist improvises, found mostly in the concerto
Define ritornello
thematic passage played by the orchestra
When do ritornellos appear in the classical concerto?
At the beginning (exposition), at the conclusion of the exposition, sometimes to begin the recapitulation, at the end of the recapitulation.
What type of opera is Don Giovanni?
opera buffa
What is recitative?
Conveys action, almost like speech, simple musically
Why did Mozart prefer opera buffa to opera seria?
It was more flexible, and raised music to the level of dramatic action
The scene in "A taci" may be a tribute to what form of entertainment?
a puppet play
Who are the characters in "A taci"
Don Giovanni, Donna Elvira, Leporello
What is Singspiel?
German for a play with singing
Why did Singspiel have trouble early on?
It was hard to commission new works, little support from the aristocracy
How was Singspiel different from opera buffa?
S used spoken dialogue, naive, greater stylistic variety
Who wrote the libretto for the Magic Flute?
Emanuel Schikaneder
What are some examples of Masonic influence in The Magic Flute?
three: boys, ladies, E flat (3 flats), three trombones, chords beginning
When did Beethoven become aware of increasing deafness?
What is the name of Beethoven's middle period, and what symphony did it take the name from?
heroic period, Eroica
What is a scherzo?
movement, usually in triple meter, that genrally comes 3rd in a 4 movement work ("joke")
Why was the Romantic period different from the others before it?
Unlike in earlier times, the Romantics did not abandon or deny the musical past, but tried to reinterpret it.
Who wrote "Beethoven's Tenth?"
What are some types of Romantic pieces?
caprices, bagatelles, intermezzos, impromptus
How is dissonance treated in Romantic pieces?
For emotional impact rather than something to be resolved over the piece
What ideal did the Romantics strive for?
personal and subjective view of art
Who said "Reason errs, feeling does not."?
When did the baroque period take place?
When was the classical period? `
When was the Romantic period?
When was the modern period?
Who are some impressionistic composers?
Debussy and Ravel
What are important concepts of Classical music?
balance, proportion, and symmetry
Who is the singer in "Voi Che Sapete?"
what is the term for a male part written for a female voice?
trousers or pants role
define strophic
uses the same music for each verse
What style united the music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven?
Viennese Classical
Which style/region had supremacy during the Classical period?
Italian opera
When did Bach die?
When was Bach's music revived?
Who was responsible for the revival of Bach's music?
Mendelssohn (he performed St. Matthew's Passion)
How does the baroque handle rhythm?
"spinning out", continuity, motoric
What is the texture of Baroque music
What is a fugue?
usually polyphonic baroque work based on a single theme that runs through the whole thing
What is galant?
A music form in opposition to the baroque, emphasized gracefulness, variety, and ease
What is the Empfindsamer Stil?
"sensitive style", romantic view of art, intimacy
what is "redendes Prinzip"
German "speaking principle", sense of impassioned speeche, free treatment of rhythm, homophony, ES
Who is the singer in "Son imbrogliato," and who is he falling in love with?
Uberto, Serpina
How does "Son imbrogliato" represent opera buffa?
bass voice, rapid pace, discrete phrases, changes in mood
what are the sections of sonata form?
exposition, development, recapitulation, (optional coda)
What subsections are present in a sonata's exposition?
presentation of theme, transition to new key, establishment of new key in secondary theme, close in new key
What does the sonata form rely on?
resolution of dissonance
What was the "Sturm und Drang?"
"storm and stress", sought to move in passionate, anti-rational ways
What were some aspects of Sturm und Drang?
symphony, minor, dynamics, polyphony
Which composer went through a Sturm und Drang phase?

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