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Glossary of ACA DECA Science Section 1: Intro to Anatomy and Physiology

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What is the oldest scientific study?
anatomy
Name two of the earliest anatomists.
Hippocrates
Galen
What does the endocrine system contain?
hormone secreting glands, etc.
Where did the greatest shift in attitude towards the treatment of disease occur?>
ancient greece
What was the belief for the cause of disease before the Greeks?
supernatural: God was angry with you
What model showed the theory of rational explanation in Greece?
four-humor model
What were the four humors of ancient greece?
blood
phlegm
yellow bile
black bile
What did the Greeks think the three stages of disease were?
1)imbalance between the humors
2)a boiling reaction to this imbalance
3)discharge of imbalanced humor or death
What did the Greeks prescribe to fix the disease?
change of diet, balanced routine of sleep and exercise, mineral spirits and plant extracts, draining wounds, etc.
What did the Greeks change that made a great change in the field of medicine?
hygiene
hippocrates is considered the father of _______ medecine.
Western
When did Hippocrates live?
460-370BC
Where did Hippocrates theorize that disease came from?
ingenstion of bad foods or weather
Who was the first to use the humoral theory as a diagnostic tool with the practice of clinical observation of a patients symptoms?
Hippocrates
How did Hippocrates gain anatomical knowledge?
did not disect corpses, looked at old human bones and wounds
What do graduating medical students do today that students at the school of Hippocrates did ages earlier?
Hippocratic oath
Name a few of the books included in Hippocrates' Corpus Hippocratium
On Airs, Waters, and Places
On the Articulations
On Ancient Medicine
Aphorisms
The book of prognosis, etc.
When was Aristotle alive?
384-322BC
What two naturalist sects did Aristotle study most?
biology and zoology
What is it called when one studies animal's anatomy to get a better idea of human anatomy?
Comparative anatomy
About how many elements occur naturally in abundance in our bodies?
2 dozen
Name 8 of the elements that occur naturally in abundance in our bodies
calcium
carbon
hydrogen
oxygen
phosphorous
potassium
What do the cells of our body require to survive?
water
glucose
oxygen
Approx what percent of our bodies are water?
75%
What is water called when inbetween cells?
interstitial fluid
Ionic compounds are dissolved in water and some cells feed off the ____ that result.
electrolytes
What is the normal ph for the human body?
7.4
What are ions used for in the body?
muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, intracellular signal transduction
What does cellular respiration do?
converts the ebergy from the chemical bonds in glucose to energy bonds of ATP: can then be used by the cell for movement, maitnenence and repair
Define condensation at the cellular level.
Water is removed from two adjacent molecules to form a bond between them
Define hydrolysis at the cellular level
occurs when water is used to break bonds from larger molecules to form smaller molecules
Hydrolysis and condensation encourage what two types of events?
anabolic and catabolic
The process of oxidization is a vital step in cellular ______.
respiration
Name the four major types of tissue
epithelial
connective
muscle
nervous
What do epithelial cells do?
Cover our body
Cancers of epithelial cells are called?
carcinomas
Name two connective tissue area thingies...
where they are located!
blood
bone
What are three types of muscle tissue?
caridac
skeletal
smooth
How many bones did Alessandro Achillino think we have in our hand?
30
How many bones do we have in our hand?
19 (not including wrist)
What is the attempt to understand personality by studying face stuctures known as?
physiognomy
What works did Aristotle write?
De paribus animalium (On the Parts of Animals)
De generative animalium (On the Generation of Animals)
The anatomy and physiology of over ___ animals was covered in Aristotles works.
500
What is Aristotle known for discovering the difference between?
nerves and tendons
What is Aritotle known for describing/discovering?
major arteries and their branches into smaller blood vessels
What theory did Aristotle dismiss concerning pregnancy?
the preformation theory
Name a few of Aristotles experiments.
-develpoment of a heart on 4rth day in chick embryo
-theory of pangeneis
-establishment of early field of embryology
When was the term pangenisis introduced?
Charles Darwin's days
What greek anatomist is often called the "Father of Anatomy" that attended the Alexandrian School?
Herophilus (335-280 BC)
Where is the Alexandrian School located?
Alexandria, Egypt
Who was Herophilus' contemporary?
Erasistratus (300-260BC)
How many dead bodies did Erasistratus and Herophilus study?
more than 600
What is a cadaver?
dead body
Herophilus recognized the _____ as the center of the ______ system.
brain
nervous system
Herophilus made the first step in what sect of anatomy?
neuroscience
Herophlius distinguished the ______ (brain part) from the ________ (nother brain part, ____ nerves from ____ nerves and proclaimed the brain to be the "source of _____".
cerebrum
cerebellum
sensory
motor
thought
What book did Herophilus write? What did it describe?
Anatomica (On Anatomy)
facets of the human brain, including the cerebral ventricals and the venous sinuses
The name duodenum is used to describe what part of the body?
the passage from the stomache to the intestine
Herophelius described the dudodenum as what? Why?
dodekadaktylon
estimated size of 12 finger lengths
What did Herophilus recognize about nerves?
-difference between sensory nerves and voluntary movement nerves
-damage could eventually lead to paralysis
Erasistratus was more of a _______ than herophilus.
physiologist
Erasistratus ultimatly became the leader of what school?
Alexandrian school
Explain Erasistratus' pneumatic theory.
describes heart as a pump and delineated the auricles of the heart, the cardiac valves and many blood vessels:
the aorta, the pulmonary atery and pulmonary vein, the hepatic artery and vein and both the superior and inferior vena cava
Erasistratus beleived that the nerves were chanels that carried vital ___ to the various parts of the body.
air
Erasistratus knew that oragans were served by what three fold network?
artery
vein
nerve
Erasistratus thought that veins carried blood, arteries transported _______ ________ and nerves transported ______ ________.
animal spirits
nervous spirits
Erasistratus descovered cerebral _______, the ventricles, and the ______ coverings of the brain.
convultions
meningial
When was Galen born?
129AD
How many medical treatises did Galen write?
over 130
What were all Galen's medical tratises known as?
De usu partium (On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body)
For how long were Galen's theories unchallenged in the Western World?
1,500 years
What famous class of people did Galen treat in Rome?
gladiators
Because dissection of people was forbidden in Rome, what did Galen study?
dissected animals
T or F: Because Galen dissected animals, all his tehories on how the human body worked were true.
FALSE
What did Galen discover about arteries? What had people believed about them before that?
that they carreid blood
that they carried air
Where did Galen gain his medical knowledge?
the Asclepion at Pergamum
Galen's study of ancient anatomical texts proved to him that clinical ________ was the greatest necessity for curing ailments.
observation
What animals did Galen study in place of humans? (they have anatomy similar to humans)
barbary apes
Galen encouraged physicians to discover the effects of their ______ and thus laid the early groundwork for physiological connections to annatomical design.
treatments
Did Galen support his observation with evidence?
yes
What body part did Galen discover plays an integral role in movement and paralysis?
spinal cord
Galen also discovered that the diaphram plays a part in _______.
respiration
In what ways were Galens theories incorrect?
location of vital organs
tripatite system (liver heart brain inject natural, vital, and animal spirits into veins, arteries and nerves and then animal spirits transported throughout body)
four humors
What was the most influential of the Arab texts? Who wrote them?
The Canon of Medicine
Ibn Sina (Avicenna)
How many works did Ibn Sina write, and what were they mostly about?
over 400
medicine, philosophy, mathematics
What were the catalysts for anatomical research?
Universities
Name two Universities that were essential in the study of anatomy.
University of Padua (1222)
University of Bologna (c. 1088)
What was probably the first University in the Western World?
university of bologna
Who contributed to the birth of the University of Bologna?
Giosuè Carducci
16th Century those of "______ _______", that is, experimental science. The philosopher Pietro Pomponazzi upheld the study of the laws of nature against the traditionalist position of Theology and Philosophy. A representative figure of this peri
natural magic
animals
nature
Alessandro Achillini is sometimes called the second ______ ?
aristotle
Alessandro lecteured in medicine and philosphy at which schools?
Bologna and Padua
Name two of Alessandro Achillini's works.
Corpores humani Anatomia
Anatomicae Annotationes
What did Alessando Achillini discover?
first to describe the malleus and incus and demonstrated that there are seven tarsal bones
knew the ileo-caecal valve and gave a detailed description of the duodenum, ileum and colon
Who isk nows as the Founder of Modern Anatomy?
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
Andreas V. was a professor of what and what at the University of Padua?
surgery
anatomy
What did A.V. do that many other anatomists had not done?
disect humans
made notes and drawings on findings
What illustrations did A.V. publish in 1538 with the help of the printing press?
Tabulae Sex
What did Vesalius publish in 1543?
De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body)
How old was Vesalius when he published on the fabric of the human body?
29
How many engraved illustrations were in his work?
180
Because of the sucess of Vesalius' work, he was appointed to be the physician to whom?
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
What did Vesalius prove was not a proper healing method?
blood-letting
Michael Servetus (1511-1559) was a student of whom?
What did Servetus discover?
Vesalius
pulmonary circuit of the blood circulating from from the right chamber of the heart to the lung
septum impermeable
What did Another of Vesalius' pupils, Realdo Columbus (1515-1559), discover?
advances in the study of circulation of the blood and process of respiration
firs to coin term "circulation"
What titles did Paracelsus hold?
alchemist
physician
astrologer
occultist
What is Parcelsus mean?
superior ot celsus (an early roman anatomist)
What is Paracelsus often called the father of?
toxicology
Why did Parcelsus study alchemy?
to find out what chemicals and shtuff could be used as medicine to aid the human body
What country was Paracelsus from?
germany
What coutnry was Ambroise Pare from?
france
Who was considered the master surgeon of the sixteenth century?
Ambroise Pare
In the 16th century, what was Paris' only public hospital?
Hotel-Dieu
After running out of scalding oil to treat bullet wounds at a battle in 1536, what did Pare create to treat them with?
a salve of egg yolks, turpentine, and rose oil
Pare also recognized the importance of good _____.
posture
T or F: Physicians often hired artists to document their findings with detailed diagrams?
true
What are tissues made out of?
What invention was used to discover this?
cells
microscope
What is a histologist?
scientist who studies tissues
Name an artist who studied human bodies to satify his curiosty of physiology.
also drew quite a few diagrams of them.
Leonardo Da Vinci
How many corpses did Da vinci dissect throughout his lifetime?
more than 30
What was Leonardo Da vinci's flaw in his anatomical studies?
saw anatomy in an emotional rather than a purely scientific way: this led him to project theories about how he felt the body should work onto his drawings. One example, which shows a couple having sex, bisected from head to toe, portrays semen as coming from the brain, along the spinal cord, and reaching the penis through a tube for which he would have had no physical evidence.
why did Michelangelo disect corpses?
better knowledge of the human body for art
Name two works by Michelangelo that show his superior knowledge of the human body.
The Creation of Adam
David
What did Albrech Duere sutdy to get better at art?
geometry and anatomy
Where did Gabriello Fallopio study?
Ferrara
What Gabriello fallopio credited with?
added much to what was known before about the internal ear and described in detail the tympanum and its relations to the osseous ring in which it is situated. He also described minutely the circular and oval windows (fenestræ) and their communication with the vestibule and cochlea. He was the first to point out the connection between the mastoid cells and the middle ear. His description of the lachrymal passages in the eye was a marked advance on those of his predecessors and he also gave a detailed account of the ethmoid bone and its cells in the nose. His contributions to the anatomy of the bones and muscles were very valuable.
What great discovery did G. Fallopio make concerning the reproductive system?
fallopian tubes
What did Bartolomeo Eustachi(us) discover?
inner workings of ear, first who described the internal and anterior muscles of the malleus, as also the stapedius, and the complicated figure of the cochlea, anatomy of the teeth
What is Hieronymus Fabricius known for studying?
formation of the fetus, the structure of the esophagus, stomach and bowels, and the peculiarities of the eye, the ear and the larynx
What if H. Fabricius' main claim to fame?
discovery of the membranous folds, which he names valves, in the interior of veins
When was Marcello Malpighi born?
1628
What is Marcello Malpighi known for discovering?
capillaries
When was William Harvey around?
Jacobean England
What is Harvey known for mapping out?
the entire circulatory system, except the capillaries
How old was Henry Gray, anatomist and surgeon, elected a Fellow of the Royal Society?
33
What is Henry Gray famous for?
His book of drawings of the human body and compilation on how each of the systems work
When was Gray's anatomy published?
1858
At what age did Henry Gray die?
34
Where did Henry Gray teach/study anatomy?
St George's Hospital Medical School in London
What does anatomy mean when disected?
tomy =to cut
ana =apart
What does physiology mean when dissected?
physio = nature
ology= the study of
Gross Anatomy
anatomy you can see with the naked eye
Microscopic anatomy
anatomy you need a microscope to see
Cytology
the study of cells
Histology
the study of tissues
Radiological anatomy
anatomy only seen with non invasive machines: provides a molecular-based opital disection of the human body
aka electromagnetic imaging
anatomical position
standing erect w/arms at side, palms facing forward
What are the three planes of anatomy?
sagittal
transverse
frontal
Sagittal
imaginary line that divides the body into left and right parts
midsagittal cut
midline(median) divides the body in to two equal parts
Transverse
divides the body horizontally, top and bottom, creates a cross section
Frontal
divides the body into front and back, anterior and posterior aka coronal section
bilateral symmetry
right half of the body is symetrical to the left half
superior
higher/ closer to the skull
inferior
below another/closer to the feet
anterior
toward the front of the body
posterior
toward the back of the body
medial
imaginary midline dividing the body equally into left and right halves. body part closer to midsaggital line is medial to another part
lateral
closer to the sides, rather than the midsagittal plane
proximal
closer to the point of attachment or origin
distal
further away from the point of attachment or origin for that body part
How many major body cavities are there?
four
Cranial cavity
encases the brain
spinal cavity
from cranial cavity to base of spine, encases spinal cord
thoracis cavity
upper compartment: heart, esophagus, organs of respiratory system
abdominal cavity
lower compartment, organs of digestive, reproductive, and excretory systems
What is the human body composed of at the smallest level?
atoms
Aggregates of chemical combinations form cellular compositions called ____
organelles
homeostasis
98.6 : temperature your body must be at to work properly
metabolism
sum of reactions between getting energy and using it
cells
smallest building blocks of life (tissues, braincells, blood)smallest stuctures known to exhibit the characteristics of life
How many cells are in the human body?
100 trillion
tissues
aggregates of similar cells that perform a function (ie nervous tissue stimulates muscle cells tissue to get theh eart to contract)
Organs
composed of several different tissues that work together to form a structure that performs a specific function (ie heart, liver, kidney)
systems
composed of two or more organs that work together to perform a more complex function
anabolic
constructive part of metabolism
catabolic
destructive part of metabolism
What are muscle tissue's compromised of?
muscle fibers
What is nervous tissue comprimised of?
neurons or nerve cells and neuroglia
where is nervous tissue located?
brain
spinal cord
peripheral nerves
What can nervous tissue do?
generate and transmit electrical signals that convey sensory information
stimulate movemnt
integrate information
In percentage, about how much of the human body is composed of water?
75%
What type of tissue may have Pseudostratified Columnar arrangement of cells?
E Science pithelial tissue
All connective tissue types contain an extracellular matrix that includes what two main components?
fibers and ground substance
Epithelium described as keratinized, stratified-squamous epthelium is found wherei n the body?
skin
An epithelium that changes its shape from cuboidal to squamous when it becomes distended, such as occurs in the urinary bladder as it fills with urine, is called?
transitional epithelium
Pproduced by fibroblasts, the most abundant connective tissue fiber, and in fact the most common protein in the body is?
collagen
Name the connective tissue cell type that stores fat
adipocyte
the connective tissue fiber type that allows your skin to return to its normal configuration after it is scrunched up or stretched
elastin
Bones that are found embedded within tendons of some muslces (like the patella for example) are called
sesamoid bones
the central canals of the osteons within compact bone, where one finds small blood vessels and nerves, are
haversian canals
the components in spongy bone that are arranged in irregular honeycomb patterns are called
trabeculae
What hormone causes calcium extraction from bone in order to raise blood levels when they become too low?
parathyroid hormone
inflammation of bone and bone marrow is called
osteomyelitis
Bone marror tansplant in cnacer patients is often necessary to replace what important cell type?
stem cells
decrease inb one density in the elderly related tot housands of bone fractures a year is called
osteoporosis
average life span of a red blood cell
120 days

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