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Glossary of ACA DECA: Art S1: Early to Mid-Fifteenth-Century Italian Art

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What did patrons use art for?
to shape the way their contemporaries thought of themselves and their positions in the world
How did art change?
became an intellectual activity rather than simply a craft
The sudden snse of pride nad loyalty within city states was known as what?
campanilismo
What does campanille mean?
the bell tower
What were the most important city states?
Venice, Milan, Siena, Rome and the Papal States, and Florence
Did most people venture far from their place of birth?
no
What two city states held the majority of seaborne trade?
Venice and Genoa
What city state housed the Catholic church and all of its associated wealth?
Rome
What city state was the banking center of Europe and dominated the production of woolen goods?
Florence
What was the gonernment of Rome and the papal states?
pope
What river runs through Tuscany (i.e. Florence)?
Arno River
What building is in the center of the city?
Bapistery of San Giovanni
What cathedral is next to the bapistery?
Santa Maria del Fiore
What is another name for the Santa Maria del Fiore?
the Duomo
Who designed and built the dome ontop the cathedral?
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446)
How wide was the opening before the dome?
140 feet
What avenue connects the cathedral and the duomo?
Via Calzaiuoli
What is the name of the square infront of the city hall in Florence?
Piazza della Signoria
What is the name of Florence's city hall?
Palazzo della Signoria
Who wrote a book dedicated to accomplished and celebrated men?
Petrarch
What years did Petrarch live?
1304-1374
Name three great masters of the Renaissance.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Raphael (1483-1520)
Michelangelo (1475-1564)
Humanist scholars were inspired by the literature and history of classical _____.
greece and rome
Who copied and preserved many classical texts?
monks
What monastic orders were highly influential?
Dominican and Franciscan
What di dthe church condemn that made banks give them a lot of money to ensure entrance into heaven?
usury
What kind of churches that showed their statury were all throughout Florence?
Catholic
What grain market was turned into a church because of an image of the Virgin Mary?
Orsanmichele
What crafts had guilds?
most all, but mostly painters, stoneworkers, goldsmiths, and textiles
Who made the two bronze doors for the Baptisery?
Ghiberti (c.1378-1455)
Who controlled Ghiberti's creation?
his guild
Who created the statues outside the orsanmichele?
guilds
What did the silk guild help Brunellechi design and build?
Ospedale delgi Innocenti
Hospital of the Innocents
Foundlings Hospital
(all mean the same building)
Waht did individual families decorate their homes with?
furniture, sculptures and paintings
What family had Dontello's bronze David in their courtyard?
Medici
What was a cassone?
chest for holding clothing, elaboratly carved and painted and presented to a bride before her marriage
Did the patron have a significant impact on how the final work of art would look?
yes
did artists often have to fight for a job by creating models and presenting them to the patron?
yes
Did artists receive ana education in the liberal arts?
no
At what age did artists usually begin apprenticeships?
seven and fifteen
How long did an artist stay in the masters workshop?
5 years
What tasks did an apprentice artist start with?
sweeping the floor, preparing materials, observing and practicing the masters techniques
How did women make it into the artists profession?
having a family member in the buisness, to receive training without leaving the house
What were fiteenth centurty artists inspired by?
classical Greek and Roman art
Why hadnt medieval artists followed the ideas in art of classical antiquity?
The believed it to be pagan, and therefore taboo
How did Renaissance artists use the classical nude sculptures of pagan deities?
adapted them for use in christian imagery
What did medieval artists seek to emphasize in religious figures?
spiritual nature
What happend to the medieval styles of the human body because of their desire to make religious figures have a strong spiritual nature?
became stylized or abstracted
Renaissance artist wanted to portray the world around them in a more _______ fashion.
naturalistic
wanted to show solidity of the body, material presence of human figure, naturalistic folds of cloth
How did renaissance artist represnet human emotions in art?
gestures and facial expressions
Which artist created the first free standing nude male sculpture since ancient Rome?
Donatello (1386-1466)
What year was Donatello's bronze David created?
c. 1440
What pose was used to illustrate a naturalistic weight shift?
contrapposto
What did the contrappostso show?
human figures readiness to move and act, appears relaxed yet engaged
What did artists use to create the illusion that the flat wall or panel like a window into a another world?
linear perspective
What are two strong observations that came before linear perspective?
things that further in the distance appear to be smaller than things that are near us

presence of atmosphere makes colors in the distance appear less intense than the color of nearby objects
What does the graph of linear perspective consist of?
receding parallel lines (orthogonal lines)

vanishing point
Who is credited with the development of linear perspective?
Filippo Brunelleschi
Who was the first person to actually write about linear perspective in a descriptive tone?
Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472)
When did Leon Battista write "On Painting"?
1435

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