Glossary of ACA DECA: Art S1: Early to Mid-Fifteenth-Century Italian Art
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- What did patrons use art for?
- to shape the way their contemporaries thought of themselves and their positions in the world
- How did art change?
- became an intellectual activity rather than simply a craft
- The sudden snse of pride nad loyalty within city states was known as what?
- What does campanille mean?
- the bell tower
- What were the most important city states?
- Venice, Milan, Siena, Rome and the Papal States, and Florence
- Did most people venture far from their place of birth?
- What two city states held the majority of seaborne trade?
- Venice and Genoa
- What city state housed the Catholic church and all of its associated wealth?
- What city state was the banking center of Europe and dominated the production of woolen goods?
- What was the gonernment of Rome and the papal states?
- What river runs through Tuscany (i.e. Florence)?
- Arno River
- What building is in the center of the city?
- Bapistery of San Giovanni
- What cathedral is next to the bapistery?
- Santa Maria del Fiore
- What is another name for the Santa Maria del Fiore?
- the Duomo
- Who designed and built the dome ontop the cathedral?
- Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446)
- How wide was the opening before the dome?
- 140 feet
- What avenue connects the cathedral and the duomo?
- Via Calzaiuoli
- What is the name of the square infront of the city hall in Florence?
- Piazza della Signoria
- What is the name of Florence's city hall?
- Palazzo della Signoria
- Who wrote a book dedicated to accomplished and celebrated men?
- What years did Petrarch live?
- Name three great masters of the Renaissance.
- Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
- Humanist scholars were inspired by the literature and history of classical _____.
- greece and rome
- Who copied and preserved many classical texts?
- What monastic orders were highly influential?
- Dominican and Franciscan
- What di dthe church condemn that made banks give them a lot of money to ensure entrance into heaven?
- What kind of churches that showed their statury were all throughout Florence?
- What grain market was turned into a church because of an image of the Virgin Mary?
- What crafts had guilds?
- most all, but mostly painters, stoneworkers, goldsmiths, and textiles
- Who made the two bronze doors for the Baptisery?
- Ghiberti (c.1378-1455)
- Who controlled Ghiberti's creation?
- his guild
- Who created the statues outside the orsanmichele?
- What did the silk guild help Brunellechi design and build?
- Ospedale delgi Innocenti
Hospital of the Innocents
(all mean the same building)
- Waht did individual families decorate their homes with?
- furniture, sculptures and paintings
- What family had Dontello's bronze David in their courtyard?
- What was a cassone?
- chest for holding clothing, elaboratly carved and painted and presented to a bride before her marriage
- Did the patron have a significant impact on how the final work of art would look?
- did artists often have to fight for a job by creating models and presenting them to the patron?
- Did artists receive ana education in the liberal arts?
- At what age did artists usually begin apprenticeships?
- seven and fifteen
- How long did an artist stay in the masters workshop?
- 5 years
- What tasks did an apprentice artist start with?
- sweeping the floor, preparing materials, observing and practicing the masters techniques
- How did women make it into the artists profession?
- having a family member in the buisness, to receive training without leaving the house
- What were fiteenth centurty artists inspired by?
- classical Greek and Roman art
- Why hadnt medieval artists followed the ideas in art of classical antiquity?
- The believed it to be pagan, and therefore taboo
- How did Renaissance artists use the classical nude sculptures of pagan deities?
- adapted them for use in christian imagery
- What did medieval artists seek to emphasize in religious figures?
- spiritual nature
- What happend to the medieval styles of the human body because of their desire to make religious figures have a strong spiritual nature?
- became stylized or abstracted
- Renaissance artist wanted to portray the world around them in a more _______ fashion.
wanted to show solidity of the body, material presence of human figure, naturalistic folds of cloth
- How did renaissance artist represnet human emotions in art?
- gestures and facial expressions
- Which artist created the first free standing nude male sculpture since ancient Rome?
- Donatello (1386-1466)
- What year was Donatello's bronze David created?
- c. 1440
- What pose was used to illustrate a naturalistic weight shift?
- What did the contrappostso show?
- human figures readiness to move and act, appears relaxed yet engaged
- What did artists use to create the illusion that the flat wall or panel like a window into a another world?
- linear perspective
- What are two strong observations that came before linear perspective?
- things that further in the distance appear to be smaller than things that are near us
presence of atmosphere makes colors in the distance appear less intense than the color of nearby objects
- What does the graph of linear perspective consist of?
- receding parallel lines (orthogonal lines)
- Who is credited with the development of linear perspective?
- Filippo Brunelleschi
- Who was the first person to actually write about linear perspective in a descriptive tone?
- Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472)
- When did Leon Battista write "On Painting"?
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