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Glossary of ABeka Science 7 - Chapter 1 - Section Reviews

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(29, 1.5) What term means "nonporous"?
impermeable
(25, 1.4) How much nitrogen is in a 27-2-2 fertilizer?
27%
(29, 1.5) Define "saturated".
completely filled with water
(25, 1.4) How much phosphorus would there be in a 3-6-9 fertilizer?
6%
(25, 1.4) What is the name given to any bacteria that convert nitrogen to nitrogen compounds?
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
(25, 1.4) What kind of bacteria converts ammonia into usable nitrates?
nitrifying bacteria
(25, 1.4) What kind of bacteria puts nitrogen back into the air?
denitrifying bacteria
(29, 1.5) Give the term that describes any water located below the water table.
ground water
(29, 1.5) What two factors determine the depth of the water table?
the size and number of pores in the rocks and soil; the amount of recent rainfall
(29, 1.5) Define "aquifer".
a layer of porous rock or gravel-soil mixture that is capable of holding water
(29, 1.5) What is the term for the upward movement of water through a tiny space in response to tension?
capillary action
Why will a plant die if you give it too much water?
If the soil contains too much water, air cannot enter the pore spaces and the plant will "suffocate." Soils saturated with water don't have enough oxygen to support the root growth of most plants.
(16, 1.2) Why is the texture of the rocks found on a rocky seashore different from that of rocks gathered in your back yard?
The pounding of the waves from the ocean makes the rocks by the shore smooth. Since there is less action in your back yard, the rocks are not as smooth.
(16, 1.2) What type of weathering is caused by the natural forces of wind, water, and temperature?
physical weathering
(25, 1.4) Give the functions of each of the three primary plant food elements.
Nitrogen: stimulates rapid growth in stems and leaves and gives plants a rich, healthy color.

Phosphorus: Necessary for cell division and cell growth, for the production of fats, and for converting starches to sugars within the plant. It also makes fruits "firm up" properly.

Potassium: Necessary for the formation of chlorophyll; also contributes to the general health of the plant.
(7, 1.1) Name the six steps of the scientific method.
1. State the problem.

2. Gather information.

3. Formulate a hypothesis.

4. Test the hypothesis.

5. Record and analyze.

6. State the conclusions.
(7, 1.1) Tell the difference between the experimental group and the control group.
Experimental: the group on which a test is performed.

Control: the group used as a standard for comparison.
(7, 1.1) Give the term for the factors that remain the same.
constant factors
(7, 1.1) Define "variables".
conditions present only in the experimental group
(7, 1.1) Which step of the scientific method should be done throughout an experiment?
recording
(7, 1.1) If another person repeats your experiment, how should his results compare to yours?
they should be the same
(7, 1.1) The marigolds on one side of your house grow taller than those on the other side. Give several possible explanations for this observation.
lighting conditions, the direction in which the wind blows the rain, soil differences, what was planted in the soil previously, nearby plants which might take the water
(16, 1.2) Define "organism".
a living thing
(16, 1.2) Define "pedology".
the study of soil
(16, 1.2) What two kinds of matter make up soil?
mineral, organic
(16, 1.2) What kinds of life does soil contain?
animals such as worms, insects, and small mammals; microscopic life; plant roots; decaying plant parts
(16, 1.2) Besides providing nutrients, what other job does humus do in the soil?
holds water
(16, 1.2) Name the top two layers of soil.
topsoil, subsoil
(16, 1.2) Name the process by which rocks are broken down into soil.
weathering
(16, 1.2) What is the most common mineral in the earth's crust?
quartz
(16, 1.2) What type of weathering involves the decomposition of rock as minerals react with substances such as oxygen, water, and acids?
chemical weathering
(21, 1.3) What determines the texture of the soil?
the combination of the different sizes of mineral particles produced by weathering
(21, 1.3) Give the functions of sand in the soil.
allows air and water into the soil
(21, 1.3) Define "pedologist".
a scientist who studies soil
(21, 1.3) What is loam?
a soil that contains a range of mixtures of sand, silt, and clay
(21, 1.3) What can color tell us about the soil?
the organic and mineral content
(21, 1.3) How do chemists express the degree of acidity or basicity of a substance?
They use the pH scale, which ranges from 0 to 14:7 is neutral; 0 to 6 is acidic; 8 to 14 is basic.
(21, 1.3) What is acid rain? Is it a serious threat to the environment?
Acid rain is rain containing a weak acid. As far as scientists can determine, it is not a serious threat. Acid rain has existed for up to 350 years, and the amount of acid in the rain has increased little in the last few decades. The acidity of lakes can be changed easily if change is desirable, and the acid rain that falls on forests has been found to harm very few trees.
(21, 1.3) Why is it that your tongue sometimes feels sore after drinkiing fresh pineapple juice? Would you predict that pineapple juice has a low or a high pH?
If you have a sore on your tongue, you will find frsh pineapple juice a painful thirst quencher. Pineapple juice has a low pH, which makes it an acid.
(25, 1.4) List the three primary plant food elements.
nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium
(25, 1.4) What is the process of converting nitrogen into nitrogen compounds?
nitrogen fixation
(7, 1.1) What attitude did the great founders of modern science have about God?
Most of them believed in God, and many of them wrote of His infinite wisdom and design in creation.
(7, 1.1) What is the purpose of science?
to carefully observe nature and to try to discover the laws of creation so these laws can be put to work for the benefit of mankind
(7, 1.1) Who was the "Father of the Scientific Method"?
Sir Francis Bacon
(7, 1.1) What are the three main activities of any scientific method?
hopothesizing, observing, experimenting
(7, 1.1) What is the scientific term for a sensible explanation to a problem?
hypothesis

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