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Glossary of ABeka Science 6-3

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What is a "Strombolian" eruption?
A noisy but usually mild eruption which flings volcanic bombs, with occasional lava oozing down the side of the cone.
What is "coal tar"?
The tarlike substance bitumen is removed from the coal and refined; used to make plastics, detergents, perfumes, and many other products
Who invented the Richter scale?
An American seismologist named Charles Richter.
What are the two types of "weathering"?
Chemical or physical
What do we call a weak spot in the earth's crust through which magma may squeeze its way upward through the crust and form a large reservoir a few miles beneath the surface?
A magma chamber
What is "sub-bituminous coal"?
The second most common type of coal; softer and more crumbly than bituminous coal; widely used to generate electricity
What is a "Hawaiian" eruption?
When a volcano produces a large amoung of fluid lava that surges from the volcano's vent like water from a fountain.
What is "weathering"?
A process that causes rocks to gradually break or crumble into smaller pieces when it is exposed to weather conditions on the earth's surface.
What is the most famous scale used to measure earthquake strength?
the Richter scale
What is "obsidian"?
A shiny black rock that resembles glass
What do we call lava which gushes from a narrow conduit, shoots dozens of yards into the air, and forms a vertical geyser of lava?
a lava fountain
What is soil made up of?
Small particles of rock and decomposed plants and animals.
What is the name of the famous fault in southwestern California which has been the location of several well-known earthquakes?
the San Andreas fault
What are two colored forms of corundum that are highly valued as precious stones?
the ruby (deep red) and the sapphire (blue)
What is an "extinct" volcano?
One that has not erupted in recorded history or is unlikely to ever erupt again.
What is the outer-most layer of the earth called?
the crust
What is a shield volcano?
Large amounts of fluid, runny lava gradually build up a dome-shaped mountain. They typically have a large crater or depression at the top.
What is an example of a foliated rock?
Slate
Where do approximately 15% of all earthquakes occur?
In the Alpide Belt, which cuts across southern Europe into Asia.
What are the three major sections of the interior of the earth?
The crust, the mantle and the core.
What do we call fragments of tephra that are smaller than bombs and blocks but larger than volcanic ash?
Lapilli ("little stones")
What is "granite"?
A strong, light-colored rock that contains at least three different kinds of mineral crystals: glasslike quartz, dull white, gray or pink feldspar, and black, shiny mica.
What is "magnitude"?
earthquake strength
What are "sediments"?
A thin layer of soil and a thick layer of sand and mineral fragments covering the rocks of the earth's crust.
What is an "active" volcano?
One that has erupted recently or is considered likely to erupt in the near future.
What rocks are produced by metamorphism of igneous or sedimentary rocks?
metamorphic rocks
How is a cinder cone volcano formed?
By eruptions composed mostly of tephra, or small fragments of solidified lava, building up into cone-shaped mountains. They are not as large as other volcanoes and erode rather quickly.
What are the two sections of the earth's inner core called?
The outer core (molten iron and nickel) and the inner core (even hotter metal which remains solid because of the pressure on it).
What is the point underground where an earthquake begins called?
The focus
What are two alloys which contain copper?
Brass (copper and zinc) and bronze (copper and tin)
What do we call a break that appears in the rock at the boundary between two moving masses of rock?
A fault.
What is "geology"?
The study of the earth and its structure.`
What is the study of earthquakes called?
Seismology
What are "Plinian" eruptions?
The volcano expels hot clouds of gas and dust high in the atmosphere, forming ash clouds that may travel completely around the world. These usually occur in volcanoes that have lain dormant for a long period of time.
What are three common types of volcanoes?
cinder cone volcanoes, shield volcanoes, and composite volcanoes
What is a "geologist"?
A scientist who studies the earth.
What do we call the place at ground level that is directly above the focus?
the epicenter
What are some examples of rocks formed by chemical sediments?
Halite (rock salt) and gypsum
What do we call melted rock?
Magma
What is the middle layer of the earth called?
the mantle
What is a "tsunamis"?
A monstrous wave formed by sudden movement of the Pacific plate under the ocean floor.
What is the reddish-orange metal which covers a penny?
copper
What do we call the smallest fragments of tephra?
volcanic ash
What is "chemical weathering"?
Natural acids slowly eat into a rock and cause it to break apart.
How are composite volcanoes formed?
Alternating layers of fluid lava and tephra build up a steep, symmetrical mountain, perhaps with a small crater at the top.
What is a "fossil fuel"?
A fuel formed from the fossilized remains of plants.
What are four famous composite volcanoes?
Mount Ranier and Mount St. Helens in Washington State, Mount Fuji in Japan, and Mount Vesuvius in Italy.
What is the innermost region of the earth called?
the core
What is "tephra"?
Lava fragments.
What is an example of an unfoliated rock?
Marble
What are "mid-oceanic ridges"?
Underwater mountain ranges where plates of the earth's crust are moving away from each other.
What is the boundary between the earth's crust and mantle called?
the Moho (or Mohorovicic discontinuity)
What is a "calderas"?
When the magma chamber of a volcano is close to the surface, the empty chamber may "cave in" after the eruption is over, causing the ground to sink and forming a huge, bowl-shaped depression at the surface.
What are "gemstones"?
Small deposits of igneous and metamorphic crystals concealed within dull-colored rocks.
What is a "tremor"?
A weak earthquake.
What is sometimes formed by a collision between two plates?
A mountain.
What are three common types of volcanic eruption?
Hawaiian eruptions, Strombolian eruptions, and Plinian eruptions.
What is "sandstone"?
A rough, crumbly rock which consists of particles of quartz sand that have been fused together into rock; sometimes used for making glass.
What is a "volcano"?
A vent that allows molten rock and hot gases to escape from within the earth.
What is "physical weathering"?
Rock is broken down by water, ice or windblown sand.
What do we call lava erupting from a long crack or fissure, producing a sheetlike fountain of glowing lava?
a fire curtain
What are the three classifications of rock?
Igneous rock, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock.
What is an earthquake?
Any trembling or shaking of the earth's crust.
What are "plates"?
Individual pieces of rock that "float" like rafts on the soft rock of the earth's upper mantle. It is believed there are 7 large and 3 small plates.
What is a "dormant" volcano?
One which erupted many years ago and is now inactive, but which may erupt again.
What are some examples of rocks formed from mechanical sediments?
Sandstone, shale, conglomerates, and breccia
What do we call fragments of tephra which are more than 2 1/2 inches across?
volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks
What is the "magnetosphere"?
The region of space affected by the earth's magnetic field.
What are smaller earthquakes or tremors which follow a larger earthquake called?
Aftershocks
What is the only stone formed by living animals?
Reef limestone
What causes earthquakes?
Movement of two plates which come in contact with tremendous force as they try to move in different directions.
What is the "aurora borealis"?
the "northern light"; appears in the Northern Hemisphere and is seen most often in Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia and Russia.
What do we call the result of two plates coming together and bending without cracking?
A fold.
What is an unfoliated rock?
Rock which does not have a layered appearance and cannot be split into thin layers like slate and other foliated rocks.
What do we call a region where faults have already been established?
a seismic belt
What are "troglophiles"?
Animals that can live their entire lives either in a cave or above ground.
What do we call the result of rock cracking but not moving in any way?
A fracture
What are some common semiprecious stones?
amethyst, zircon, tourmaline, lapis lazuli, turquoise, chalcedony and jade.
More than one-fourth of the world's active volcanoes are found in a volcanic belt that encircles the edge of the Pacific Ocean. What is it called?
the Ring of Fire
What is formed when calcium carbonate particles become attached to a grain of sand in a shallow pool of water inside a cave?
cave pearls
What do we call a scientist who studies earthquakes?
a seismologist
What is "metamorphism"?
The change of a rock into a new type of rock cuased by extreme heat or pressure
What do we call places in the earth's surface which may be perforated by holes or cracks serving as escape vents for underground gases?
fumaroles
What are "troglobites"?
Animals who live only in caves and cannot survive above ground.
Where do about 80% of all earthquakes occur?
In the Circum-Pacific Belt, the region that circles the Pacific Ocean.
What three sediments combine to form sedimentary rocks?
mechanical sediments, chemical sediments, and organic sediments.
What do we call an opening in the earth's surface formed by the explosion of trapped gases?
a vent
What do we call thin, floating disks of calcium carbonate that range in size from less than an inch to nearly a foot across?
cave rafts
What is "lava"?
Molten rock on the earth's surface.
What are four types of intrusive rock?
granite, mica, feldspar, and quartz
What is a "crater"?
a depression
What is "magnetism"?
The force that pulls magnets apart or pushes them together.
What do we call the hard material that composes the earth's crust?
Rock
What do we call the ends of a bar magnet?
The poles
What do we call a rock containing a metal together with impurities?
ore
What is a "magnetic field"?
The area surrounding a magnet in which the force of magnetism affects other objects.
What metals are found in rock?
gold, silver, copper, iron and aluminum
What is a "trogloxene"?
An animal that visits a cave regularly but cannot live there for long periods; they must return to the surface to find food
What is the most widespread of all metals in the earth's crust?
Aluminum
What are "auroras"?
Breathtaking displays of light produced when solar wind particles collide with molecules of air in the atmosphere near the poles.
What are the two groups of metamorphic rocks?
foliated rocks (layered rocks) and unfoliated rocks (unlayered rocks)
What is a "solar wind"?
A stream of harmful particles which flows constantly from the surface of the sun.
What is the "hardest of all known minerals"?
the diamond
What is an "electromagnet"?
A magnet that becomes magnetized only when it is hooked to a battery or some other source of electric current
What is "shelly limestone"?
Discarded shells from snails, nautiluses, and other gastropods fused together.
What is a solution cave?
A cave formed by the dissolving of underground rocks by water.
How is "shale" formed?
Mud or clay that consists of much smaller particles than sand; it is often found in layers of sandstone or limestone.
What is the scientific study of caves called?
Speleology
What is "bituminous coal"?
the most common type of coal; black, shiny coal; most widely used by industry; major fuel used to produce electricity in power plants
What do we call a stalagmite that grows tall enough to reach the ceiling of a cave or to join a stalactite hanging from the ceiling?
a column
What is "basalt"?
Thin, runny lava solidifies in vast mounds or sheets.
What is "overburden"?
Layers of rocks and soil around coal
How are chemical sediments formed?
When water seeps through rocks, some minerals in the rocks may be dissolved by the water and carried elsewhere. The minerals later crystallize or settle out of the solution, forming chemical sediments.
What do we call a spike-shaped structure growing up from the "ground" in a cave?
a stalagmite
What is the most famous form of beryl?
the emerald (deep green)
What are different groups of hydrocarbons called?
fractions
What are the two categories of igneous rock?
extrusive igneous rock and intrusive igneous rock
What do we call a sheet of minerals formed by water flowing over broad areas of the wall or floor of a cave?
Flowstone
What is "pumice"?
Rock formed by gas-filled lava; gas escaping as the lava cools leaves behind hollow spaces, making the rock foamlike in appearance.
What are horizontal layers of coal in the earth called?
beds or seams
What are "precious stones"?
The rarest, most durable and beautiful gems
What is a cave?
Any hollow space in the earth's crust that has formed naturally and is large enough for a person to enter.
What are four features of bituminous coal that make it attractive as an industrial fuel?
It is plentiful, easily mined, relatively inexpensive, and produces high temperatures when burned
What is petroleum in its natural form (when it's pumped from the ground) called?
Crude oil
What are "organic" sediments?
dead plants, shells, or animal skeletons
What is the definition of "porous"?
Full of holes
What do we call the individual substances that make up rocks?
Minerals
What is "lignite coal"?
The poorest quality of coal; "brown" coal; gives off an offensive odor and black, sooty smoke when burned
What are "diamond pipes"?
Deep tubelike formations that appear to be the clogged vents of extinct volcanoes.
What do we call thin, hollow tubes that hang from the ceiling of many caves?
Soda straws
What is "anthracite"?
hard, shiny, black coal; burns slowly, cleanly and with a hot flame; preferred heating fuel; most expensive to mine
How does a sea cave form?
The ocean beats upon a weak area of a cliff and erodes a hole into the rock.
What is the most commonly used metal?
Iron
What is a mineral deposited on the cave's surface as a soft paste sometimes called?
Moon milk
What do we call rock that is formed from sediments that have been pressed together into solid rock?
Sedimentary rock.
What is "underground mining"?
Large vertical tunnels or shafts dug downward through the ground to a coal bed more than 150 feet below the earth's surface.
What do we call any trace left in a rock by a plant or animal?
a fossil
What do we call a thicker, icicle-shaped formation growing from the ceiling of a cave?
a stalactite
What is a semiprecious stone?
Gems that are not as rare or as durable as precious stones.
What is a "hydrocarbon"?
A chemical substance made primarily of hydrogen and carbon.
What do we call rock that forms when molten rock solidifies?
Igneous rock
What process is used at a refinery to separate the hydrocarbons into different groups?
fractional distillation
What are "mechanical sediments"?
Sand, clay, or rock fragments that are carried elsewhere by heavy rains, flooding or strong winds and deposited in a thick layer elsewhere.
What do we call a very large cave?
a cavern
What form do most iron products come in?
steel
What do we call thin, wavy sheets of hanging rock?
Draperies
What are foliated rocks?
Rocks made up of layers like the leaves of a book
What does the word "petroleum" mean?
Rock oil
What are three types of extrusive rocks?
obsidian, pumice and basalt
What is "surface mining"?
Removing coal from within 150 feet of the surface of the earth.
What are examples of rocks formed from organic sediments?
Limestone and chalk
What is the "liquid fuel"?
Petroleum
How is coal formed?
Decaying plants
What is a "fractionating column"?
A tower used to process crude oil into various forms.
What is an important substitute for steel and copper?
Aluminum
How does a lava cave form?
Molten lava flows out from beneath a hardened surface of lava.
What is a rust-resistant type of steel called?
stainless steel
What are the four major types of coal?
anthracite (hard coal), bituminous coal (soft coal), sub-bituminous coal, and lignite coal (brown coal)

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