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Glossary of ABeka History 11 - Chapter 2 - Bold Words

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(23) Magna Carta
the "Great Charter"; an important document signed by King John in 1215 which helped to prepare England for limited government
(24) dissenters
those who opposed the official church; the two largest groups included the Catholics and the Puritans
(25) inflation
increased capital in circulation causes the price of goods to go even higher
(24) Northwest Passage
a supposed water route through North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific
(25) Separatists
group of dissenters who withdrew from the Church of England and formed their own churches
(25) divine right of kings
theory that absolute monarchy is the only form of government sanctioned by God; used by English kings to support their claim to absolute authority
(25) Enclosure Movement
English landholders began evicting tenant farmers and enclosing their fields with hedges in order to raise sheep
(26) joint-stock company
a forerunner of the modern corporation; several businessmen invested in a single company to support a colonizing venture
(27) common-store system
each man was required to place the fruit of his labor in a common storehouse, and each was entitled to receive food and supplies from the storehouse according to this needs
(27) "starving time"
during the winter of 1609-1610, the hungry settlers of Jamestown were forced to eat dogs, horses, and even rats and mice
(28) indentured servants
one whose passage to America was paid by an established colonist and, in return, pledged to work for his benefactor without pay for an agreed-upon period of time
(28) precedents
happenings that serve as examples to be followed in the future
(29) House of Burgesses
an assembly of delegates from various districts of Virginia which acted as an advisory body to the governor of the colony
(29) Bacon's Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon and other frontiersmen marched on Jamestown and burned it to the ground in defiance of Governor Berkeley
(30) Council for New England
name taken by the Plymouth Company when it reorganized in 1620
(30) congregationalism
the theory of church government which says that every body of believers should be independent and self-governing
(30) Adventurers
a group of English businessmen who financed the Pilgrims' expedition to the New World
(31) Mayflower
the ship that carried the Pilgrims to America
(28) private enterprise
(capitalism) individuals are free to make a living and prosper on their own enterprise
(31) "Strangers"
non-Separatists aboard the Mayflower
(31) Mayflower Compact
an important early document which, although it did not actually set up a government, expressed the Pilgrims' willingness to show due submission
(33) "History of Plymouth Plantation"
the first American history book
(33) General Court
a democratic legislative body established in Plymouth; met periodically to pass laws, carry out provisions of the law, and judge cases and controversies arising under the law
(35) Massachusetts Bay Colony
founded by Puritan businessmen in 1630; became a leader among the colonies
(36) "Great Migration"
the great migration of Puritans to the New World for religious freedom in 1633
(37) Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
considered the first written Constitution in America; established a representative government and designated powers of government
(37) Puritan work ethic
the belief that work is a gift from God and a way to glorify Him
(39) King Philip's War
a fierce Indian uprising led by a Wampanoag chief called King Philip in 1675-1676; put down by the New England Confederation
(40) Dominion of New England
a forced union of the colonies of New England, New York, and New Jersey; governed by Sir Edmund Andros
(41) Toleration Act
act passed in Maryland granting freedom of worship to anyone professing to believe in Jesus Christ
(41) Grand Model
attempt to establish a system of feudalism in the Carolinas
(43) patroon system
Dutch West India Company would grant large tracts of land along a navigable river to individuals who would bring settlers to colonize it
(44) Covenanters
Scottish Protestants who had bound themselves to a series of covenants to remain true to the Presbyterian doctrines
(44) Quakers
believed that each man should follow his "inner light," worshiping God from his heart
(45) "Pennsylvania Dutch"
German settlers in Pennsylvania; became known as such because of English settlers who were not careful in their pronunciation of the word "Deutsch"
(39) New England Confederation
(League of Friendship); first voluntary American union
(40) proprietary colonies
formed on land grants from the king to individuals

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