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Glossary of A&P I

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Created by cadomanis

Integumentary System
skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands

forms covering for the body
protects deeper tissues






what is the larges organ of the body?
the skin

skeletal system
composed of bone, cartilage and ligaments

provides support and protection as well as framework for muscles

where are blood cells formed?
in the red bone marrow of long bones
muscular system
composed of muscles and tendons

allows movement, manipulation of the environment and facial expression



which organ system produces heat?
muscular system
muscles are held together by what?
tendons
the nervous system
composed of the brain, spinal column and nerves

nerves leave both the brain and spine

fast acting control system of the body

responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands





cardiovascular system
composed of the heart and blood vessels
what is the difference between red and blue blood?
red blood is oxygenated
blue blood is de-oxygenated
what is the job of blood vessels?
to transport blood throughout the body

lymphatic system
composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels

picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood

disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream

houses white blood cells involved with immunity





respiratory system
composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and larynx (voice box)

keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

digestive system
composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver

breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood

eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces



urinary system
composed of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
what is the main function of the urinary system?
to eliminate nitrogenous waste from the body

regulate water, electrolyte and pH balance of the blood

male reproductive system
composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ducts deferens
what is the main function of the male reproductive system?
how is this done?
produce offspring

the testes produce sperm and male sex hormones

the ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract



female reproductive system
composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus and vagina

what is the main function of the female reproductive system?

how is this function carried out?

the production of offspring

the ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones

mammary glands, uterine tubes, uterus and vagina serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus



axil refers to ...
the head, neck and trunk
appendicular refers to...
appendages or limbs

what are the two subdivisions of the dorsal cavity?
the cranial cavity
dorsal cavity
protects the nervous system and is divided into two subdivisions
cranial cavity
within the skull and encases the brain
vertebral cavity
runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord
what are the two body cavities?
dorsal and ventral
ventral cavity
houses the internal organs
what are the two subdivisions of the ventral cavity?
thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
thoracic cavity
subdivided into the pleural cavities, the mediastinum and the pericardial cavity
pleural cavities
each house a lung
mediastinum
contains the pericardial cavity and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs
pericardial cavity
encloses the heart
the abdominopelvic cavity
separated from the superior thracid cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm

composed of two subdivisions, abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity

abdominal cavity
contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver and other organs
pelvic cavity
lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs and rectum
parietal serosa
lines the internal body cavities
visceral serosa
lines the internal organs
serous fluid
separates the parietal and visceral serosae

what is the purpose of the serous fluid?
to keep the organs from sticking together
the 9 abdominopelvic regions
right hypochondriac region
right lumbar region
right iliac (inguinal) region
epigastric region
umbilical region
hypogastric (pubic) region
left hypochondriac region
left lumbar region
left iliac (inguinal) region







superior
above
inferior
below
cephalic
above
caudal
below
anterior
closer to the front of the body
ventral
closer to the front of the body
posterior
closer to the back of the body
dorsal
closer to the back of the body
medial
midline of the body
lateral
farther from the midline of the body
intermediate
between two structures
ipsilateral
on the same side of the body
contralateral
on opposite sides of the body
proximal
nearer to the point of attachment of limb to trunk
distal
farther from the point of attachment of limb to trunk
superficial
closer to surface of the body
deep
farther from the surface of the body
frontal plane
cuts the body into anterior and posterior parts
midsaggital plane
cuts the body into left and right sides
oblique
passes through the body at an angle
parasagittal plane
divides the body into unequal right and left portions
transverse plane
divides the body into superior and inferior sections
negative feedback systems
the output shuts off the original stimulus
positive feedback systems
output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus

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