Glossary of 9 Resp LOM ClinicalProcedures
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- X-Rays: chest x-ray
- radiographic imaging of the thoracic cavity. frontal plane, as posteroanterior(PA) or anteroposterior(AP) views and in the sagittal plane as lateral views.
- X-Rays: chest tomograms
- a series of x-ray images each showing a "slice" of the chest at different depths. detect small masses not seen on regular films.
- X-Rays: CT scan of chest
- for diagnosis of lesions difficult to assess by conventional x-ray studies, such as those in the hilum, mediastinum, and pleura.
- X-Rays: pulmonary angiography
- after injection of radiopaque contrast into the pulmonary artery or rt side of the hrt. visualizes the pulmonary circulation to locate obstructions or pathological conditions, such as pulmonary embolus.
- Magnetic Imaging: MRI
- fontal, lateral and cross-sectional (axial) planes. helpful in locating lesions difficult to assess by CT scan.
- Radioactive Test: ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan
- detection device records radioactivity after injection of a radioisotope or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas (xenon). Can identify areas in the lungs not receiving air flow(ventilation) or blood flow (perfusion).
- fiver-optic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes for diagnosis, biopsy, or collection of specimens. bronchial alveolar lavage (bronchial washing), fluid is injected and withdrawn. (bronchial brushing) a forceps is used to grasp tissue.
- endotracheal intubation
- placement of a tube thru the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea to establish an airway. also allows a pat to be placed on a ventilator.
- visual examination of the voice box.
- lung biopsy
- removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination.
- endoscopic visual exam of the mediastinum. incision made above the breastbone for inspection and biopsy of lymph nodes.
- pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
- tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lung(airway function, lung volume, and capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently). determines if lung dz is obstructive, restrictive, or both.
- PFTs used for the following reasons:
- 1. to evaluate pats with shortness of breath.
2. to follow pats with known resp diagnoses.
3. to evaluate disability.
4. to assess lung function preop or therapy.
- diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. assess the ability of gas to diffuse across the alveolar-capillary membrane. pat breathes in a small amount of CO and the length of time it takes the gas to enter the bloodstream is measured.
- obstructive lung disease
- airways are narrowed which results in resistance to airflow during breathing. decreased epiratory flow rate or FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in the first second). examples: asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, and bronchiolitis.
- restrictive lung disease
- expansion of he lung is limited by disease that affects the chest wall, pleura, or lung tissue itself. decreased total lung capacity (TLC) is a hallmark PFT value. examples: pulmonary fibrosis, radiation damage, and pneumoconiosis. other causes are neuromuscular conditions that affect the lungs (myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, diaphragmatic weakness and paralysis).
- surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space.
- major surgical incision of the chest, large cutting into bone, muscle, and cartilage.
- visual exam of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope. Video-assisted thorascopy (VATS) allows a surgeon to view the chest from a video monitor.
- creation of an opening into the trachea thru the neck.
- tuberculin test
- determines past or present tuberculosis infxn based on a positive skin reaction. examples: Heaf and tine tests, using purified protein derivative (PPD) applied with multiple punctures of the skin and Mantoux test, by intradermal injxn.
- tube thoracostomy
- chest tube is passed thru an opening in the skin of the chest to continuosly drain a pleural effusion.
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