Glossary of 95. Microbiology p217
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- Antigen Variation
- P. 217
- What is antigenic variation?
- When pathogens change their proteins (surface, flagellar, etc) so that they can escape the immune system's antibodies.
- What are two mechanisms of antigenic shift?
- DNA re-arrangement, and RNA re-arrangement
- What type of antigenic shift does Borrelia have?
- It changes it's surface proteins and causes replacing fevers - each new fever corresponds to new growth of the bacteria due to new antigens.
- What bacteria has antigenic shift in its flagella?
- Salmonella has two types of flagella, and it can shift between them.
- What type of shifting does n. Gonorrhea undergo?
- There is DNA recombinations that cause its pillus to be hypervariable.
- African sleeping sickness is caused by what bacteria?
- Trypanosome brucie
- What kind of antigen shift does t. Brucie have?
- The Trypanosomes shift the proteins on their membranes in a cyclic, pre-programmed manner, leading to cyclic fevers.
- Influenza has both antigenic shift and antigenic drift. What is the difference between the two?
- Drift is a minor change in surface glycoproteins that allows new stains of flu to avoid host defense. Shift is a major change where new surface proteins are created.
- What is the mechanism of antigenic shift in influenza?
- when two types of flu infect the same cell and trade pieces of RNA new proteins are made.
- P. 217
- ANA is associated with?
- What is specific for SLE
- anti ds-DNA, anti-Smith
- What is associated with drug-induced lupus?
- What is Rheumatoid Factor
- anti-IgG, associated with Rhematoid arthritis
- What is Anti-neurophil associated with?
- What indicates CREST scleroderma?
- Anti-centromere antibody
- what is anti-mitochondrial associated with?
- primary billiary cirrosis
- What indicates celaic sprue?
- anti-gliaden antibodies
- What is anti-basement membrane associated with?
- Goodpasture's syndrome
- What indicates pemphigus vulgaris?
- anti-epithelial antibodies
- What is anti-microsomal associated with?
- Hashimoto's thryroiditis
- Transplant Rejection
- P. 217
- What is hyperacute rejection?
- This occurs when the host has pre-formed antibodies to the donor
- How fast does this occur?
- Within minutes of the transplant
- Can it be controlled?
- No - the damage is permenant.
- What is acute rejection?
- a cell mediated type II cytotoxic response that occurs in the weeks following the rejection
- What molecule causes this reaction?
- the foreign MHC on the transplant
- What is chronic rejection?
- Antibody mediated vascular necrosis that happens over months/years
- What is graft-versus-host disease?
- This occurs when graft T-cells proliferate in the immune-suppressed host and attack the host cells as foreign.
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